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Comparisons between the MT and other translations



The major advantage to the Mechanical Translation for the student of the Bible is that it consistently translates each Hebrew word in the exact same way each time it occurs in the text. This allows the reader to see the Hebrew text, without even knowing Hebrew, in its pure form void from any personal interpretation being interjected into the text. Below are a few examples from the book of Genesis comparing the Mechanical Translation (MT) and the Revised Mechanical Translation (RMT) with Young's Literal Translation (YLT), King James Version (KJV), the Revised Standard Version (RSV) and the Stone's Edition Tenach (SET).




Genesis 1:1

MT: in~Summit he~did~Fatten "Elohiym [Powers]" At the~Sky~s2 and~At the~Land
RMT: in the summit "Elohiym [Powers]" fattened the sky and the land,
YLT: In the beginning of God's preparing the heavens and the earth
KJV: In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
RSV: In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.
SET: In the beginning of God's creating the heavens and the earth.

Hebrew words related to "time" are also used for "space." Therefore, the Hebrew word reshiyt, derived from the word rosh, can mean the head, top or beginning of space or time. The MT uses the word "summit" to translate this word as it better describes the original meaning of the Hebrew. Psalm 111:10 reads "The fear of YHWH is the reshiyt of wisdom." The more Hebraic meaning of this is that "the fear of YHWH" is the summit, or height, of wisdom.

The Hebrew verb bara is usually translated as "create." However, the idea of "creation" is an abstract word which would be a foreign concept to the Ancient Hebrews. This very same verb is used in 1 Samuel 2:29 where it is translated correctly as "fat." The Hebrew concrete meaning of this word is to make something fat or to fill it up. The context of this verse is Elohiym's "filling" up of the skies with the sun, moon, stars and birds, the water with fish and taniyn (an unknown serpent like creature) and the earth with plants, animals and man. We also read in verse two that Elohiym "filled" the skies and the land because "the land was empty." Only the Young's Literal Translation uses the word "preparing," closer to the Hebraic meaning of this word, to translate the word bara.

The YLT and SET translate the verb bara as a participle (...ing) where the Hebrew is not.



Genesis 2:7

MT: and~he~will~Mold "YHWH [He exists]" "Elohiym [Powers]" At the~Human Powder From the~Ground and~he~will~Exhale in~Nose~s2~him Breath Life~s and~he~will~Exist the~Human to~Being Life
RMT: and "YHWH [He exists]" of "Elohiym [Powers]" molded the human of powder from the ground and he exhaled in his nostrils a breath of life and the human existed for a being of life,
YLT: And Jehovah God formeth the man -- dust from the ground, and breatheth into his nostrils breath of life, and the man becometh a living creature.
KJV: And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.
RSV: then the LORD God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being.
SET: And HASHEM God formed the man of dust from the ground, and He blew into his nostrils the soul of life; and man became a living being.

The name YHWH literally means "he exists" and is derived from the Hebrew verb hawah meaning to "exist." However, the KJV and RSV translate the name YHWH as "the LORD" when the Hebrew word has no connection to the meaning of the word "lord." The SET also replaces the name YHWH with the word HASHEM (a Hebrew word meaning "the name").

The Hebrew YHWH Elohiym is always translated as "LORD God" (KJV, RSV), "Jehovah God" (YLT) or "HASHEM God" (SET) in the standard translations. In Hebrew grammar, two nouns placed together are in the construct state. For instance, in Psalm 24:10 the Hebrew phrase YHWH tseva'ot (the same structure as YHWH Elohiym) is correctly translated in its construct state-"LORD of Hosts." The MT chooses to translate YHWH Elohiym in the same manner-"YHWH of Elohiym."

The KJV and RSV translate the Hebrew nephesh hhayah as "living soul" in this verse while in Genesis 1:24 they translate this very same phrase as "living creature." The SET translates this phrase as "living being" here but as also translates it as "living creature" in Genesis 1:24. Only the YLT remains consistent in how this phrase is translated in these two verses.



Genesis 2:17

MT: and~from~Tree the~Discernment Functional and~Dysfunctional Not you(ms)~will~Eat From~him Given.that in~Day you(ms)~>~Eat From~him >~Die you(ms)~will~Die
RMT: and from the tree of the discernment of function and dysfunction you will not eat from him given that in the day you eat from him a dying you will die,
YLT: and of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, thou dost not eat of it, for in the day of thine eating of it -- dying thou dost die.'
KJV: But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.
RSV: but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall die.
SET: but of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Bad, you must not eat thereof; for on the day you eat of it, you shall surely die.

The English words "good" and "evil" (or bad) do not completely convey the Hebraic meaning of the word tov and ra which are more related to the function of a person, place or thing rather than their appearance or morality as implied in the English.



Genesis 3:15

MT: and~Hostility i~did~Set.down Between~you(ms) and~Between the~Woman and~Between Seed~you(ms) and~Between Seed~her He he~will~Fall.upon~you(ms) Head and~You(ms) you(ms)~will~Fall.upon~him Heel
RMT: and hostility I sat down between you and the woman and between your seed and her seed, he will fall upon you a head and you will fall upon him a heel,
YLT: and enmity I put between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; he doth bruise thee -- the head, and thou dost bruise him -- the heel.'
KJV: And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.
RSV: I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed; he shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise his heel
SET: I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and her offspring. He will pound your head, and you will bite his heel.

The literal meaning of the second half of this verse is that "the seed of the woman will drop a head on the serpent and the serpent will drop a heel on the seed of the woman," which is the complete opposite of the reading in the KJV, RSV and the SET.

The Hebrew verb shuph (fall upon) is used twice in this verse. The SET translates this verb as "pound" in one place and "bite" in another.



Genesis 4:1

MT: and~the~Human he~had~Know At "Hhawah [Living]" Woman~him and~she~will~Conceive and~she~will~Bring.forth At "Qayin [Acquired]" and~she~will~Say i~did~Purchase Man At "YHWH [He exists]"
RMT: and the human had known "Hhawah [Living]" his woman and she conceived and she brought forth "Qayin [Acquired]" and she said, I purchased a man with "YHWH [He exists]",
YLT: And the man knew Eve his wife, and she conceiveth and beareth Cain, and saith, `I have gotten a man by Jehovah;'
KJV: And Adam knew Eve his wife; and she conceived, and bare Cain, and said, I have gotten a man from the LORD.
RSV: Now Adam knew Eve his wife, and she conceived and bore Cain, saying, "I have gotten a man with the help of the LORD."
SET: Now the man had known his wife Eve, and she conceived and bore Cain, saying, "I have acquired a man with HASHEM."

The Hebrew verb qanah means to "acquire something through a purchase or exchange" and not simply "get" as other translations have implied.

The name "Eve" comes directly from the Greek Septuagint (2,000 year old Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible) and not the Hebrew text which is Hhawa (or Hhava). This is true for most all names such as the name Seth which comes from the Greek but is Shet in the Hebrew) and Moses from the Greek where it is Mosheh in the Hebrew.

The KJV has added the word "from," the RSV the word "help" and Young's the word "by" to the text, which do not appear in the Hebrew, in order to "fix" the text so that it reads more favorably. The Hebrew text can only be translated two ways, "I have purchased a man with YHWH" or "I have purchased the man YHWH."

The KJV employs the use of italics, supposedly to indicate when an English word has been added to the text for clarification. However, I have not found this to be very consistent. In this verse the word "from" has been added to the text by the translators but it is not italicized.



Genesis 4:7

MT: ?~Not If you(ms)~will~make~Do.well >~Lift.up and~If Not you(ms)~will~make~Do.well to~Opening Error Stretch.out~ing(ms) and~To~you(ms) Following~him and~You(ms) you(ms)~will~Regulate in~him
RMT: if you cause it to be done well, will it not be lifted up and if you do not cause it to be done well, an opening of error is stretching out and to you is his following and you will regulate in him,
YLT: Is there not, if thou dost well, acceptance? and if thou dost not well, at the opening a sin-offering is crouching, and unto thee its desire, and thou rulest over it.'
KJV: If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted? and if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. And unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him.
RSV: If you do well, will you not be accepted? And if you do not do well, sin is couching at the door; its desire is for you, but you must master it
SET: Surely, if you improve yourself, you will be forgiven. But if you do not improve yourself, sin rests at the door. Its desire is toward you, yet you can conquer it.

In the Young's, RSV and the SET, the word "it" (neutral gender) is used implying that the "it" is "sin." However, the Hebrew behind the English word "it" is the masculine pronoun-him. the Hebrew word hhatat (translated as sin, error in the MT) is a feminine word, therefore, the "it" (masculine) cannot be "sin" (feminine). The likely identity of "him" is Cain's brother (The Hebrew text of Genesis 3:16 reads, from the RMT, "and to your man is your following and he will regulate in you," identical, with the exception of the pronouns, to this verse.)



Genesis 12:8

MT: and~he~will~Advance from~There the~Hill~unto from~East to~"Beyt-El [House of El]" and~he~will~Stretch Tent~her "Beyt-El [House of El]" from~Sea and~the~"Ay [Heap of ruins]" from~East and~he~will~Build There Altar to~"YHWH [He exists]" and~he~will~Call.out in~Title "YHWH [He exists]"
RMT: and he advanced from there unto the hill, from the east to "Beyt-El [House of El]" and he stretched her tent, "Beyt-El [House of El]" was from the sea and "Ay [Heap of ruins]" was from the east and he built there an altar to "YHWH [He exists]" and he called out in the title of "YHWH [He exists]",
YLT: And he removeth from thence towards a mountain at the east of Beth-El, and stretcheth out the tent (Beth-El at the west, and Hai at the east), and he buildeth there an altar to Jehovah, and preacheth in the name of Jehovah.
KJV: And he removed from thence unto a mountain on the east of Bethel, and pitched his tent, having Bethel on the west, and Hai on the east: and there he builded an altar unto the LORD, and called upon the name of the LORD.
RSV: Thence he removed to the mountain on the east of Bethel, and pitched his tent, with Bethel on the west and Ai on the east; and there he built an altar to the LORD and called on the name of the LORD.
SET: From there he relocated to the mountain east of Beth-el and pitched his tent, with Beth-el on the west and Ai on the east; and he built there an altar to HASHEM and invoked HASHEM by name.

The Hebrew word ahaloh is not grammatically correct. This pronunciation only comes from the Masoretic Hebrew text which has added the nikkudot (vowel pointings) to Hebrew words. The original spelling of this word is a-h-l-h and can only be pronounced as ahalah. Ahalah can be translated in two ways, "unto the tent" (which does not fit with the context of the passage) or "her tent." In the modern day Bedouin tribes of the Near East, which live very much the same as in the days of Abraham, the tent always belongs to the wife. It appears that this custom was also in use in the days of Abraham as the passage literally identifies the tent as "her tent."

The MT footnote to this verse reads; The phrase "he called out in the title" may also be translated as "he met with the title." All Hebrew names are titles in the sense that the name identifies the personality or character of an individual. The "title," or "character" of YHWH, may be his representative (such as "the messenger of YHWH"). There are two meanings behind the word verb qara, one is to "call out" and the other is "to meet" (in the sense of calling someone out to meet with him). Therefore, a possible interpretation of this verse is that Abraham "met with a representative (messenger) of YHWH.



Genesis 20:17, 18

MT: and~he~will~self~Plead "Avraham [Father lifted]" To the~"Elohiym [Powers]" and~he~will~Heal "Elohiym [Powers]" At "Aviymelekh [My father is king]" and~At Woman~him and~Bondwoman~s~him and~they(m)~will~Bring.forth Given.that >~Stop he~did~Stop "YHWH [He exists]" Round.about All Bowels to~House "Aviymelekh [My father is king]" Upon Word "Sarah [Noblewoman]" Woman "Avraham [Father lifted]"
RMT: and "Avraham [Father lifted]" pleaded to the "Elohiym [Powers]" and "Elohiym [Powers]" healed "Aviymelekh [My father is king]" and his woman and his bondwomen and they brought forth, given that "YHWH [He exists]" stopped round about all the bowels to the house of "Aviymelekh [My father is king]" because of "Sarah [Noblewoman]" the woman of "Avraham [Father lifted]",
YLT: And Abraham prayeth unto God, and God healeth Abimelech and his wife, and his handmaids, and they bear: for Jehovah restraining had restrained every womb of the house of Abimelech, because of Sarah, Abraham's wife.
KJV: So Abraham prayed unto God: and God healed Abimelech, and his wife, and his maidservants; and they bare children. For the LORD had fast closed up all the wombs of the house of Abimelech, because of Sarah Abraham's wife.
RSV: Then Abraham prayed to God; and God healed Abimelech, and also healed his wife and female slaves so that they bore children. For the LORD had closed all the wombs of the house of Abimelech because of Sarah, Abraham's wife.
SET: Abraham prayed to God, and God healed Abimelech, his wife, and his maids, and they were relieved; for HASHEM had completely restrained every orifice of the household of Abimelech, because of Sarah, the wife of Abraham.

According to Young's, the KJV and the RSV, the illness YHWH placed on Aviymelekh, his wife and her bondwomen was that their wombs were restrained and they bore (KJV and RSV add the word "children" which is not in the Hebrew text). The first problem with this interpretation is that Aviymelekh, who doesn't have a womb and is not able to bear "children," was also stricken with this illness. The second problem is that according to verse 7, this illness would kill them. While the Hebrew verb yalad is usually used in the context of "bringing forth (bearing) children," the literal meaning of this verb is simply to "bring forth." The Hebrew text literally states that their bowels could not "bring forth, most likely, they were suffering from constipation.



Genesis 25:27

MT: and~they(m)~will~Magnify the~Young.man~s and~he~will~Exist "Esav [Doing]" Man Know~ing(ms) Game Man Field and~"Ya'aqov [He restrains]" Man Mature Settle~ing(ms) Tent~s
RMT: and the young men magnified and "Esav [Doing]" existed a man knowing game and a man of the field and "Ya'aqov [He restrains]" was a man of maturity a settler of tents,
YLT:And the youths grew, and Esau is a man acquainted [with] hunting, a man of the field; and Jacob [is] a plain man, inhabiting tents;
KJV: And the boys grew: and Esau was a cunning hunter, a man of the field; and Jacob was a plain man, dwelling in tents.
RSV: When the boys grew up, Esau was a skilful hunter, a man of the field, while Jacob was a quiet man, dwelling in tents.
SET: The lads grew up and Esau became one who knows hunting, a man of the field; but Jacob was a wholesome man, abiding in tents.

The Hebrew word to describe the character of Jacob is tamiym. This same word is used in Job 1:1 to describe the character of Job. However, while the YLT, KJV and RSV translate this word as "plain" or "quiet" man, these same translations translate this word "perfect" or "blameless" for the character of Job.







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