The Torah: A Mechanical Translation
By Jeff A. Benner
Get the Book or eBook
Help support this project
Be a part of the new MT project - Psalms

Home   |   Genesis   |   Exodus   |   Leviticus   |   Numbers   |   Deuteronomy  |  Psalms



Footnotes

1. The Hebrew name for the first book of the Torah is b’reshiyt (in the summit), the first word in the book.

2. The phrase “he existed so” means “it is firmly established.”

3. The phrase “he existed so” means “it is firmly established.”

4. The phrase “and he existed so” means “and it is firmly established.”

5. Days one through three are the “separating” of the skies and land. On the first day the light is separated from the darkness. On the second day the water is separated from the skies. On the third day, the water is separated from the land.

6. The phrase “he existed so” means “it is firmly established.”

7. The phrase “and the stars” is grammatically and contextually out of place and appears to have been added to the text. In addition, this phrase does not appear in some of the Dead Sea Scrolls of Genesis.

8. This Hebrew word is translated in various ways, including; whale, sea-monster, dragon, serpent, asp and jackal (see Exodus 7:9, Deuteronomy 32:33, Nehemiah 2:13, Job 7:12). According to these texts, this is a very large creature that lives on the land and in the water, which is characteristic of the crocodile.

9. The Hebrew literally reads “his living ones,” but may be written incorrectly.

10. The phrase “he existed so” means “it is firmly established.”

11. The phrase “he existed so” means “it is firmly established.”

12. Days four through six are the “filling” of the skies and land and are paralleled with the first three days (see the footnote at Genesis 1:13). On the fourth day the light is filled with the sun and the night with the moon. On the fifth day the water is filled with fish and the skies with birds. On the sixth day the land is filled with animals and man.

13. The singular word “TREE” may imply a “tree” or “trees.” the context of this and following verses do not specify if there is one tree or a forest of trees. Compare this with 2:16.

14. The helper will have the character traits that are complimentary to his own.

15. See verse 18.

16. The Hebrew phrase יִקָּרֵא אִשָּׁה literally translates as “he will be called out woman.” Either the “he” is an error and should be “she,” or the text originally read יִקְרָא שְׁמָהּ אִשָּׁה, which would then be translated as “he called out her title woman.”

17. The phrase “MOREOVER GIVEN.THAT” means “really.”

18. This Hebrew word can also mean “sound” (see also verse 10).

19. “Spat upon” is an idiom for “cursed.”

20. The Hebrew word רֹאשׁ (a head) could also be translated as “first.”

21. The Hebrew word עָקֵב (a heel) could also be translated as “last.”

22. Hebrew masculine plural nouns may refer to only males or a group of males and females. Therefore, the word “sons” may also be translated as “children.”

23. The Hebrew verb שמע (sh'ma) means “to hear” or “listen,” but also to respond.

24. “Spat upon” is an idiom for “cursed.”

25. The tense of this verb is in the perfect tense (completed action) implying she has given birth to children. Another possible explanation is that the Hebrew verb is written incorrectly and was originally in the imperfect tense (incomplete action).

26. The Hebrew phrase כְּאַחַד מִמֶּנּוּ can be translated as “like one of us” (referring to the Elohiym, a plural word) or “like one of him” (referring to the serpent). Compare with the words of the serpent in verse 5.

27. If the Hebrew word אֶת (AT) is being used as a preposition (with), then the translation provided is correct. However, if it is being used as the marker of the definite object, then the translation should be “I purchased the man YHWH.”

28. This Hebrew word is usually followed by a number of years or days to identify the end of that time frame, such as in Genesis 8:6 where it states “at the conclusion of the forty days.” In this verse, it appears that the period of time is missing.

29. “Flared up” is an idiom for “anger.”

30. “Face fell” is an idiom for sadness.”

31. It is often assumed the pronoun “him” is referring to the “failure.” However, the word “failure” is a feminine noun. One interpretation is that the pronoun “him” is referring to his brother. Compare the phrase “to you is his following and you will regulate in him” with the same phrasing in Genesis 3:16 where it is referring to the man and his woman.

32. The conversation between Qayin and Hevel is missing from the text. In the Greek Septuagint this is followed by “let us go out into the field.” The Septuagint may have been translated from a Hebrew text with the conversation intact or the translators may have supplied the phrase to clarify the text.

33. “Spat upon” is an idiom for “cursed.”

34. “Staggering and nodding” mean to wander aimlessly.

35. Leningrad Codex: מנשוא

36. The phrase וַיְהִי בֹּנֶה עִיר may be translated as “he existed as a builder of a city” or “he existed, building a city.”

37. A father can be the father of a son, an ancestor, or the creator of a trade or profession.

38. “Tent and livestock settlers” are nomads.

39. “Seizing hold,” in this context, means “players,” who grab hold of an instrument.

40. Or “instructor” in the sense of sharpening the skills of students.

41. The phrase “call out his title” may also be translated as “meet with the character.”

42. The Septuagint has 230 years.

43. The Septuagint has 205 years.

44. The Septuagint has 190 years.

45. The Septuagint has 170 years.

46. The Septuagint has 165 years.

47. The Septuagint has 165 years.

48. “Spat upon” is an idiom for a “curse.”

49. “Son” is an idiom for years “old.”

50. The Hebrew word דון means to moderate, judge or rule over.

51. The word מֵעוֹלָם can mean “from a distant time” (meaning ancient), but can also mean “from a distant place.”

52. “Men of the title” may be interpreted as “men of character.”

53. “Found beauty in the eyes of” is an idiom meaning “was accepted by.”

54. “To the face” means “in front” or “before.”

55. The grammar of the Hebrew text can be translated as “the land of violence was filled.” the Hebrew appears to be missing the word אֶת or the prefix ב (both can be translated as “with”) before the word violence. Compare this with Genesis 6:13.

56. The “road” of man is his customs, manner or actions.

57. “To my face” is an idiom meaning “before me.”

58. “From their face” means “with their presence.”

59. The meaning of this Hebrew word in this context is uncertain. It is usually translated as “window,” but the window of the vessel, mentioned in Genesis 8:6, is a different Hebrew word.

60. The meaning of the phrase “to an ammah you will finish her above” is uncertain.

61. “To my face” is an idiom meaning “in front of me.”

62. In context, the “men and his women” are the” males and their mates” from the pure beasts.

63. “Son” is an idiom for years “old.”

64. Leningrad Codex: מעינות

65. “Bone of this day” is an idiom of uncertain meaning, but may mean “this very same day” or the “middle of this day.”

66. Probably meaning “in the first day.”

67. In the sense of “anxiously awaiting.”

68. In the sense of “anxiously awaiting.”

69. It appears that the Hebrew word for “new moon” is missing from the text.

70. Probably meaning “in the first day.”

71. Qere = הַיְצֵא.

72. The phrase “ADD YET.AGAIN” means “continue.”

73. The phrase בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּרְמֹשׂ הָאֲדָמָה should grammatically be translated as “in all which the ground will tread.” It is probable that the Hebrew text is in error.

74. This is assumed to be a “rainbow.”

75. In context, the word “scattered” means that the land was divided into sections (see Genesis 10:5).

76. All modern translations have “his tent,” but the Hebrew spelling of this Hebrew word should be translated as “her tent.” the Hebrew spelling may be in error, but in the modern Bedouin culture, which is very similar to the ancient Hebrew culture, the family tent is owned by the wife. Therefore, it is possible that the Hebrew text may use the word “her tent” in reference to this cultural context.

77. The phrase “nakedness of the father” is an idiom for “sexual relations with the wife of the father” as seen in Leviticus 18:8. Also, the phrase “uncover the nakedness” is another idiom for “sexual relations.” the common interpretation of this verse is that Hham saw his father naked; however this is not a wrongful act. The idiomatic phrasing of this verse means that Hham had sexual relations with his mother. This type of relationship is forbidden and is the reason why Kena'an, the product of this union, is cursed in verse Genesis 9:25.

78. Leningrad Codex: ויהי

79. This Hebrew word can also mean “country.”

80. The word tongue can mean “language.”

81. The phrase “to the face of” is an idiom meaning “in front of.”

82. The construction of the sentence identifies Ashur (as a person) as the subject of the verb “G0.OUT” and would be translated as “Ashur went out.” If however, the original meaning of the phrase was “he went out to Ashur,” (where the “he” is Nimrod and Ashur is a place, see Genesis 2:14) the word “to” should have preceded the word Ashur.

83. The word tongue can mean “language.”

84. That is, the Hebrews, which in the Hebrew language is עברים (ivrim) meaning “ones of Ever.”

85. The Septuagint also has; “and Qeynan.”

86. The Septuagint and Dead Sea Scrolls read; “and Arpakhshad had brought forth Keynan, and Qeynan brought forth Shelahh, and Shelahh had brought forth Ever.”

87. This Hebrew word can also mean “language.”

88. This Hebrew word can also mean “language.”

89. This Hebrew word can also mean “language.”

90. “Fenced in” in this context means limited or restricted.

91. This Hebrew word can also mean “language.”

92. Possibly meaning “understand.”

93. This Hebrew word can also mean “language.”

94. “Son” is an idiom for years “old.”

95. The Septuagint has “a hundred and thirty-five years.”

96. The Septuagint has Qeynan instead of Shelahh.

97. The Septuagint for this verse reads; “And Arpakhshad lived after he had begotten Qeynan, four hundred years, and brought forth sons and daughters, and died. And Qeynan lived a hundred and thirty years and brought forth Shelahh; and Qeynan lived after he had brought forth Shelahh, three hundred and thirty years, and brought forth sons and daughters, and died.”

98. The Septuagint has “a hundred and thirty years.”

99. “Upon the face of” is an idiom meaning “in the presence of.”

100. All modern translations have “his tent” but the Hebrew spelling of this word should be translated as “her tent.” the Hebrew spelling may be in error, but in the modern Bedouin culture, which is very similar to the Ancient Hebrew culture, the family tent is owned by the wife. Therefore, it is possible that the Hebrew text may use the word “her tent” in reference to this cultural context. The phrase “he called out in the title” may also be translated as “he met with the title.”

101. This Hebrew word can also mean “west,” as the Mediterranean “sea” is “west” of Israel.

102. The phrase “and he called out in the title of YHWH” can also be translated as “and he met with the character of YHWH.”

103. The word “to” appears to be missing before the word “HOUSE,” otherwise this phrase should be translated as “and took the woman of the house of Paroh.”

104. This Hebrew word can also mean “matter.”

105. Meaning “wealthy.”

106. Qere = אָהֳלֹו (his tent).

107. The ketiv, meaning “her tent,” may be correct. In the modern Bedouin culture, which is very similar to the Ancient Hebrew culture, the family tent is owned by the wife. Therefore, it is possible that the Hebrew text may use the word “her tent” in reference to this cultural context.

108. The phrase “he called out in the title of YHWH” can also be translated as “he met with the character of YHWH.”

109. The phrase “lift up” can mean “support.”

110. Leningrad Codex: ובינך

111. Meaning “well watered.”

112. Qere = צְבֹויִים.

113. Meaning “came together.”

114. Qere = צְבֹויִם.

115. The word “narrowness” may mean “difficult.”

116. Leningrad Codex: הרמתי

117. The word “NOT,” at the beginning of Abram's statement, according to the context, appears to be missing from the text.

118. The Hebrew text has these names written as “Dameseq Eliezer” which requires the translation “Dameseq of Eliezer” or as a compound name “Dameseq-Eliezer.” If the standard translation of “Eliezer of Damascus” is correct, then the names must be reversed to “Eliezer Dameseq.”

119. The word threefold probably means “three years old.”

120. The Samaritan Pentateuch has the word בתור (batur) which means “with the turtledove.”

121. The phrase “UNTIL TO.THIS.POINT” means “ever again” or “yet.”

122. Meaning a “fountain.”

123. “Upon the faces of” means “in the presence of.”

124. “Son” is an idiom for years “old.”

125. “Son” is an idiom for years “old.”

126. “Son” is an idiom for years “old.”

127. The perfect tense of the verb requires it to be translated as “I gave,” but the context indicates that the verb tense should have been in the imperfect, which would then be translated as “I will give.”

128. “Son” is an idiom for years “old.”

129. “Daughter” is an idiom for years “old.”

130. “To your face” is an idiom for “in front of you.”

131. “Bone of this day” is an idiom of uncertain meaning, but may mean “this very same day” or the “middle of this day.”

132. “Son” is an idiom for years “old.”

133. “Son” is an idiom for years “old.”

134. “Bone of this day” is an idiom of uncertain meaning, but may mean “this very same day” or the “middle of this day.”

135. The name “Adonai” may be translated as a name, “Adonai,” or as the possessive plural noun meaning “my lords.” Context supports both translations as there are three men before Avraham allowing for the “my lords” translation, but the three uses of the pronoun “you” in the singular implies that he is speaking to one individual supporting the use of the word as a name.

136. The phrase “GIVEN.THAT UPON SO” means “since.”

137. Meaning to “refresh.”

138. The prefix “in,” or other clarifying word, is missing from the word “OPENING.”

139. Possibly an idiom for the season of “spring.”

140. “Coming in the days” means “advanced in age.”

141. The phrase “the path like the women terminated to exist” means “the time of childbearing has ended.”

142. In reference to being beyond childbearing age (see verse 11).

143. The phrase “MOREOVER INDEED” means “really.”

144. This Hebrew word can also mean “thing.”

145. Possibly an idiom for the season of “spring.”

146. Meaning “hide.”

147. “To the face” is an idiom for “in front.”

148. Meaning “spare.”

149. The phrase “ADD YET.AGAIN” means “continue.”

150. The phrase “and~the~DOOR he~did~SHUT” should read “and~AT the~DOOR he~did~SHUT” (compare with 19:10).

151. The phrase “GIVEN.THAT UPON SO” means “since.”

152. Leningrad Codex: והוא

153. The Hebrew of this verse appears to be missing some text. It appears this verse should read something like “and Avraham said to Sarah his woman [possible text missing, “say you are my brother”] [possible text missing, “and he said to Aviymelek the king of Gerar”] she is my sister and Aviymelekh the king of Gerar sent [possible text missing, “his servant”] and he took Sarah (See 20:5)

154. Most translations have something like “and it was I who kept you from sinning against me” implying the sin of Aviymelekh. The Hebrew however implies it is the sin (fault) of Avraham.

155. This Hebrew word can also mean “matter.”

156. The phrase “ALSO SURE” means “indeed.”

157. This Hebrew word can also mean “matter.”

158. The phrase “UPON CONCERNING~s” means “on account of.”

159. The Hebrew word אם (iym / IF) may be written in error for the word לא (lo / NOT). In which case, this would be translated as, “you will not deal falsely to me,” which agrees with the translation in the Septuagint.

160. The phrase “WHAT TO.THIS.POINT” means “what is this” or “what are these

161. The phrase “UNTIL IN.THIS.WAY” means “still.”

162. Probably meaning a “thicket.”

163. The phrase “GIVEN.THAT SEEING.AS WHICH” means “seeing that.”

164. The word “GATE” is missing the prefix “to.”

165. Qere = וַיּוּשַׂם.

166. Leningrad Codex: ולטושם

167. Qere = גֹויִם.

168. The phrase “the~RED” appears twice and is probably an accidental repeat by a scribe.

169. An idiom meaning “apart from.”

170. The phrase “SINCE WHICH” means “because.”

171. Leningrad Codex: הוא

172. The phrase “and~they(m)~will~much~FILL~them(m) DIRT” is missing a preposition and should probably read “and~they(m)~will~much~FILL~them(m) WITH DIRT” or “and~they(m)~will~much~FILL~them(m) in~DIRT.”

173. The phrase “he called out in the title” may also be translated as “he met with the title.”

174. The phrase BETWEEN~s~us is written twice in the Hebrew. In one case the word between is written in the masculine plural and the other is in the feminine plural. It would appear that one of these was accidentally added to the text.

175. The Hebrew literally reads, “if you will do dysfunction with us just as we did not touch,” is problematic. The phrase “just as,” implies the phrase before it is similar in meaning to the phrase after it. If the phrase after the “just as” is positive then the phrase before must also be positive, but the phrase is negative. The probable solution is that the word “Not” is missing prior to the verb “you(ms)~will~DO.”

176. Qere = צָיִד.

177. This phrase Hebrew text for the phrase “and the Elohiym gave to you from the dew of the skies” could also be translated as “and he gave to you the Elohiym from the dew of the skies.”

178. Qere = וְיִשְׁתַּחֲווּ.

179. Leningrad Codex: בעבר

180. The phrase “WITHOUT THIS GIVEN.THAT IF” means “this is nothing except.”

181. The word Maid appears to be missing the prefix “to~” (see 29:29 for a comparison).

182. The word “he~did~CALL.OUT” is probably an error for “she~did~CALL.OUT” as Le'ah called out the names of the other three children (see 29:32, 29:33 and 29:35).

183. Qere = בָּא גָד (fortune came).

184. The phrase “YESTERDAY THREE.DAYS.AGO” is an idiom meaning “previously.”

185. The phrase “the~FIELD TO FLOCKS~him” should be translated as “the field to his flocks” but may have originally been written as “TO the~FIELD FLOCKS~him” which would be translated as “to the field of his flock” which better fits the context of the sentence structure.

186. The phrase “YESTERDAY THREE.DAYS.AGO” is an idiom meaning “previously.”

187. The word “UPON” or “TO” appears to be missing from the word “HILL.”

188. This verse is the first verse of chapter 32 in Hebrew Bibles, but in English Bibles this verse is the last verse (55) of chapter 31. For the remainder of this chapter the verse numbers in English Bibles will be one number lower. For instance, verse 32:5 in the Hebrew Bible will be 32:4 in English Bibles.

189. The phrase “GIVEN.THAT UPON SO” means “since.”

190. The verse appears to be missing one or two prepositions. There are several possible translations for this verse depending on where the preposition or prepositions are placed. One possible translation is “and Ya'aqov came to Shalem, a city of Shekhem.” Another possible translation is “and Ya'aqov came in completeness to the city of Shekhem” (the word Shalem would be a noun rather than a proper name). Another is “and Ya'aqov of Shalem came to the city of Shekhem” (nowhere does the text suggest that Ya'aqov is from Shalem which would invalidate this translation).

191. Referring to the “foreskin,” a feminine noun in Hebrew.

192. The word “To,” the prefix “to” or the suffix “unto” appears to be missing from the name “Beyt El.”

193. The word “To,” the prefix “to” or the suffix “unto” appears to be missing from the name “Beyt El.”

194. Leningrad Codex: סביבותיהם

195. All modern translations have “his tent” but the Hebrew spelling of this word should be translated as “her tent.” the Hebrew spelling may be in error, but in the modern Bedouin culture, which is very similar to the Ancient Hebrew culture, the family tent is owned by the wife. Therefore, it is possible that the Hebrew text may use the word “her tent” in reference to this cultural context.

196. Leningrad Codex: וזבלון

197. The word “To,” the prefix “to” or the suffix “unto” appears to be missing from the name “Mamre.”

198. The word “To,” the prefix “to” or the suffix “unto” appears to be missing from the name “Qiryat Arbahh.”

199. Qere = יְעוּשׁ.

200. Qere = יְעוּשׁ.

201. The list of the sons of Tsiv'on begin with “and” unlike any other list of names. Either the “and” was accidentally added to the beginning of the list of names or there is supposed to be a name preceding this first “and.”

202. The Hebrew text identifies this name as Dishan, but is probably written in error and should be Dishon. Compare the names of the sons of Dishan from Genesis 36:28 and 1 Chronicles 1:42 and the names of the sons of Dishon from Genesis 36:26 and 1 Chronicles 1:41 (although, in the Genesis account the first son is Hhemdan but in the Chronicles account it is Amram. In the middle (paleo) Hebrew script the letters used to write each of these names are similar in appearance and are easy to juxtapose.)

203. This has been translated as “coat of many colors,” but the Hebrew word פס most likely means “wrist,” or possibly “palm,” and the tunic is one with sleeves, which would be rare, that reached to the wrist.

204. The phrase “ADD YET.AGAIN” means “continue.”

205. The phrase “ADD YET.AGAIN” means “continue.”

206. The phrase “Not we~will~make~HIT~him SOUL” would literally be translated as “we will not hit him, a soul” and makes no grammatical sense. The phrase may have originally been written as “Not we~will~make~HIT SOUL~him” meaning “we will not attack his soul.”

207. The phrase “ADD YET.AGAIN” means “continue.”

208. The context of this verse implies that this word means “spilled it.”

209. The phrase “GIVEN.THAT UPON SO” means “since.”

210. The phrase “ADD YET.AGAIN” means “continue.”

211. The Hebrew word for “lord” is written in the plural, possibly in reference to the great power (often emphasized by plurality) that Potiphar holds.

212. The Hebrew word for “lord” is written in the plural, possibly in reference to the great power (often emphasized by plurality) that Potiphar holds.

213. The Hebrew word for “lord” is written in the plural, possibly in reference to the great power (often emphasized by plurality) that Potiphar holds.

214. The Hebrew word for “lord” is written in the plural, possibly in reference to the great power (often emphasized by plurality) that Potiphar holds.

215. The phrase “DAY DAY” means “day by day” or “daily.”

216. The Hebrew word for “lord” is written in the plural, possibly in reference to the great power (often emphasized by plurality) that Potiphar holds.

217. Qere = אֲסִירֵי.

218. The Hebrew word for “lord” is written in the plural, possibly in reference to the great power (often emphasized by plurality) that Potiphar holds.

219. The Hebrew word for “lord” is written in the plural, possibly in reference to the great power (often emphasized by plurality) that the King holds. Also in verse 7.

220. Leningrad Codex: והוא

221. The phrase “SO GIVEN.THAT” means “because.

222. Leningrad Codex: הטבות

223. It is not certain if the word “AFTER” is part of what Paroh said or if it comes before the words of Paroh.

224. The phrase “and upon your mouth he will kiss all my people” may also be translated as “and by the words of your mouth will all my people be touched” or “and by your edge (of the sword) will all my people be armed.”

225. “Base,” in the sense of being a support. However, this may also be the כן (same spelling) meaning “so,” in the sense of being firm and true.

226. The phrase “!(mp)~make~COME GRAIN.SEEDS FAMINE HOUSE~s~you(mp)” appears to be missing the prefix “to~” before the word “Famine.”

227. “Base,” in the sense of being a support. However, this may also be the כן (same spelling) meaning “so,” in the sense of being firm and true.

228. The Hebrew literally reads “utensils of grain,” but as this does not make sense within the context, it appears the word for “grain” is missing a preposition such as “with.”

229. The Hebrew word for “lord” is written in the plural, possibly in reference to the great power (often emphasized by plurality) that Yoseph holds.

230. “Base,” in the sense of being a support. However, this may also be the כן (same spelling) meaning “so,” in the sense of being firm and true.

231. The Hebrew word for “lord” is written in the plural, possibly in reference to the great power (often emphasized by plurality) that Yoseph holds.

232. “Base,” in the sense of being a support. However, this may also be the כן (same spelling) meaning “so,” in the sense of being firm and true.

233. “Base,” in the sense of being a support. However, this may also be the כן (same spelling) meaning “so,” in the sense of being firm and true.

234. The phrase “GIVEN.THAT UNLESS” means “for if.”

235. The word “I-did-BE.CHILDLESS” is written twice, probably a scribal error.

236. The phrase “and~they(m)~will~GO.DOWN Mits'rayim” should read “and Mits'rayim went down.” However, the context implies the sons went down to Mits'rayim therefore, the suffix “unto” or the prefix “to” is missing from the word Mits'rayim which would then read “and they went down unto Mits'rayim.”

237. The word “HOUSE” appears to be missing the suffix “unto” or the prefix “to” so that it would read “and they were brought down unto the house of Yoseph.”

238. The phrase “and~to~>~TAKE AT~us to~the~SERVANT~s” can be translated as “and to take us to the servants” or “and take us for servants.”

239. This Hebrew word can also mean “matter.”

240. Qere = וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ.

241. The grammar of this phrase can also be translated as “and Elohiym said, he will show you beauty my son.”

242. The beginning of this verse reads differently in the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia which would be mechanically translated as “and~he~will~LIFT.UP UPRISING~s from~AT UPRISING UPRISING~s”.

243. The three nouns “GRAIN.SACK~s the~MAN~s FOODSTUFF” should grammatically be translated as “the grain sacks of the men of the foodstuff,” but apparently a word, such as “with,” is missing before the word “foodstuff.”

244. The phrase “ALSO NOW” means “let it be.”

245. The phrase “and~he~will~LOAD MAN” would be translated as “and a man loaded,” but context dictates that the phrase should read as “and~they(m)~will~LOAD MAN,” which would then be translated as “and each loaded” (compare with 44:11).

246. The phrase “UNTIL TO.THIS.POINT” means “ever again” or “yet.”

247. The verb “he~will~FLARE.UP” appears to be an error as the context implies that it should be “you(mp)~will~FLARE.UP.”

248. The prefix “in” appears to be missing before the word “HOUSE.”

249. Leningrad Codex: וחצרן

250. Leningrad Codex: חצרן

251. Leningrad Codex: ושמרן

252. Leningrad Codex: זבלון

253. It is uncertain if the text here identifies one descendant of Dan named Hhushim (a plural name due to the “im“ suffix) or if it refers to the descendants of Hhush (plural in number). Because the verse begins with “and the sons” (plural), it would appear that it refers to the descendants of Hhush, but the total number of children born to Bilhah are seven (see vs. 25) and Hhushim would be only one of these.

254. An idiom meaning “apart from.”

255. The Hebrew word translated as “CUSTOM,” which is hhoq (see vs. 26), may have been miswritten for the word hheleq meaning a “portion” (see 31:14).

256. The phrase “SHORT LAND” means a “short distance.”

257. Qere = שִׁילוֹ.

258. Qere = עִירוֹ.

259. Qere =סוּתוֹ (his coat).

260. Leningrad Codex: אנית

261. The phrase “GIVEN.THAT SO” means “since.”

262. Traditionally this has been interpreted to mean that he was “mummified.”

263. The Hebrew name for the second book of the Torah is shemot (titles), the first principle word in the book.

264. The first verse of the book of Exodus begins with “and,” indicating that this is a continuation of the final verse of Genesis.

265. The Septuagint and the Dead Sea Scrolls have 75.

266. The phrase תִקְרֶאנָה מִלְחָמָה is grammatically incorrect. The subject of the verb is the word מִלְחָמָה (battle), which is a feminine singular noun. However, the verb identifies the subject of the verb as a feminine plural. If the final letters of the verb were originally נוּ (meaning “us,” the object of the verb) instead of נָה (meaning “she,” the subject of the verb), then this would read “a battle will meet us,” which makes more contextual and grammatical sense.

267. Leningrad Codex: הוא

268. The word “hand” may be in error and may have originally been “lip,” meaning “edge.”

269. That is, a “judge,” as one who decides.

270. That is, “shepherds.”

271. The word בֹּא (COME) appears to be missing the prefix “to.”

272. That is, “shepherds.”

273. The Hebrew word קֹדֶשׁ (qodesh) is translated as “holy,” an adjective, in all other translations. While this Hebrew word can be used as an adjective, it cannot here, nor in many other occurrences of this word. The reason being that the word קֹדֶשׁ is a masculine word, while the word for ground, אַדְמַה (adamah), is a feminine word. In Hebrew, the adjective and the noun it modifies must match in gender. In addition, the word אַדְמַה is written as אַדְמַת, indicating the phrase אַדְמַת קֹדֶשׁ is in the construct state and should be translated as “ground of a special place.”

274. The Hebrew word צַעֲקָתָם (their cry) should be written as צַעֲקָתוֹ (his cry), as the pronoun is referring to עַם (people), a masculine singular noun. This is also evident from the fact that the pronoun “his” is used with the following words.

275. This Hebrew word can also mean “milk.”

276. The Hebrew word דבש means a “sticky mass” and can also mean “dates” from the palm tree.

277. “For a generation and a generation” is an idiom meaning “throughout the generations,” or “for all time.”

278. This Hebrew word can also mean “milk.”

279. The Hebrew word דבש means a “sticky mass” and can also mean “dates” from the palm tree.

280. “Place the beauty” means to “make accepted.”

281. “In the eyes of” is an idiom meaning “in the sight of.”

282. Qere = מַה זֶּה (what is this).

283. Leningrad Codex: וישלכהו

284. The first word of this verse may be in error and might have originally been the word וַיֹּאמֶר (and he said) as the following words are the words of YHWH to Mosheh. Because the first four words of this verse are the same as the next verse, the scribe may have mistakenly used the word וְהָיָה from the next verse.

285. In context, the phrase “listen to the voice” means “heed the message.”

286. The word הַיַּבָּשָׁה (the dry ground) is grammatically incorrect and should be written as לַיַּבָּשָׁה (to the dry ground).

287. The Hebrew text appears to be missing text. The Septuagint, which may preserve the original wording, reads, “please send another by the hand that you can send.”

288. Mosheh's father-in-law is called יתרו (yitro) later in this verse and in every other occurrence of his name. But here he is identified as יתר (yeter).

289. This Hebrew word appears to be missing the suffix “unto,” the prefix “to” or the word “TO.”

290. The prefix ל, meaning “to,” appears to be missing from the word הֲמִיתוֹ.

291. The “him” may be Mosheh, but may also be his son (see 4:25).

292. The phrase “YESTERDAY THREE.DAYS.AGO” is an idiom meaning “previously.”

293. The phrase “YESTERDAY THREE.DAYS.AGO” is an idiom meaning “previously.”

294. “Word of the day in his day” is an idiom meaning a “daily matter.”

295. The phrase “YESTERDAY THREE.DAYS.AGO” is an idiom meaning “previously.”

296. “Word of the day in his day” is an idiom meaning a “daily matter.”

297. Compare this verse with Genesis 17:1, but also see Genesis 15:7 and 28:13.

298. The word “POSSESSION” appears to be missing the prefix “to,” which would then be translated as “for a possession,”

299. The phrase “shortness of wind,” being paralleled with “hard service,” means “shortness of breath.”

300. Leningrad Codex: חצרן

301. “Son” is an idiom for the age of a person.

302. This Hebrew word is translated in various ways, including; whale, sea-monster, dragon, serpent, asp and jackal (see Exodus 7:9, Deuteronomy 32:33, Nehemiah 2:13, Job 7:12). According to these texts, this is a very large creature that lives on the land and in the water, which is characteristic of the crocodile.

303. This Hebrew word is translated in various ways, including; whale, sea-monster, dragon, serpent, asp and jackal (see Exodus 7:9, Deuteronomy 32:33, Nehemiah 2:13, Job 7:12). According to these texts this is a very large creature and lives on the land and in the water, which are characteristics of the crocodile.

304. The word “BLAZING” is the same word used for the sword of the Keruv (cherub in most other translations) in Genesis 3:24, but the meaning of its use in this verse is obscure.

305. The verb וַיַּשְׁלִיכוּ (and they threw out) identifies the subject of the verb (they) as masculine plural. However, the word אִישׁ (man or each, the subject of the verb) is a masculine singular word. Therefore, the verb should be written as וַיַּשְׁלִיך (and he threw out).

306. This Hebrew word is translated in various ways, including; whale, sea-monster, dragon, serpent, asp and jackal (see Exodus 7:9, Deuteronomy 32:33, Nehemiah 2:13, Job 7:12). According to these texts this is a very large creature and lives on the land and in the water, which are characteristics of the crocodile.

307. The phrase וַיֶּחֱזַק לֵב פַּרְעֹה may be translated as “and he seized the heart of Paroh” or “and the heart seized Paroh,” but compare with Exodus 4:21 and 9:12.

308. The Hebrew literally reads, “look, going out,” and appears to be missing the word “he.”

309. The phrase “UNTIL IN.THIS.WAY” means “still.”

310. Probably referring to containers made of wood and stone.

311. The phrase וַיֶּחֱזַק לֵב פַּרְעֹה may be translated as “and he seized the heart of Paroh” or “and the heart seized Paroh.” Compare this phrase with Exodus 4:21 and 9:12.

312. This verse is the first verse of chapter 8 in Christian Bibles. For the remainder of chapter 7 and all of chapter 8, the verse numbers in Christian Bibles will be four numbers higher than Hebrew and Bibles.

313. The meaning of the phrase “decorate yourself upon me” is uncertain.

314. This Hebrew word can also mean “matter.”

315. The grammar of the first part of this verse would literally be translated as, “and slimes of slimes piled them up” and appears to be written incorrectly. A possible correction is that the second occurrence of the word “slimes” is a duplication by scribal error and the first occurrence is missing the prefix “like,” then this phrase would be translated as “and they piled them up like slime.”

316. The word הַכִּנָּם is probably written incorrectly and should be הַכִּנִּים.

317. The word הַכִּנָּם is probably written incorrectly and should be הַכִּנִּים.

318. The phrase וַיֶּחֱזַק לֵב פַּרְעֹה may be translated as “and he seized the heart of Paroh” or “and the heart seized Paroh.” Compare this phrase with Exodus 4:21 and 9:12.

319. The phrase “SO GIVEN.THAT” means “because.”

320. The phrase “also in this footstep” means “also at this time.”

321. The phrase “UNTIL UNIT” means “single one.”

322. “To the eyes of” is an idiom meaning “in the sight of.”

323. The phrase “in this footstep” means “at this time.”

324. The word כְּצֵאתִי (like my going out) appears to be written incorrectly and may have originally been written as בְּצֵאתִי (with my going out).

325. The phrase וַיֶּחֱזַק לֵב פַּרְעֹה may be translated as “and he seized the heart of Paroh” or “and the heart seized Paroh.” Compare this phrase with Exodus 4:21 and 9:12.

326. Grammatically the “he” is referring to the locust, but contextually it is referring to the people.

327. Meaning “west.”

328. “Sea of reeds,” or “Yam Suph,” is usually mistranslated as “red sea.”

329. Leningrad Codex: ועלת

330. The phrase “ADD YET.AGAIN” means “continue.”

331. “Place the beauty” means to “make accepted.”

332. “Center of the night” is midnight.

333. “The dog will not cut his tongue sharply” is probably an idiom, but of unknown origin or meaning.

334. “With your feet” is an idiom meaning “following after you.”

335. “Flaming nose” is an idiom for “fierce anger.”

336. Meaning “the tenth day.”

337. “In the worth of the souls of man” means “one that is sufficient for all those eating it.”

338. “Son” is an idiom for years “old.”

339. As the word for “evening” is written in the double plural. This is literally translated as “between the 'two' evenings,” but is of uncertain meaning. It may be the time between sunset and dark or between sunrise (as the word ערב literally means the “mixing” of light) and sunset.

340. The words לָכֶם יִהְיֶה (will exist for you) appears to be missing here (compare with the next phrase).

341. “Bone of this day” is an idiom of uncertain meaning, but may mean “this very same day” or the “middle of this day.”

342. This Hebrew word may mean “after the new moon.”

343. This Hebrew word may mean “after the new moon.”

344. The Hebrew phrase וּקְחוּ לָכֶם צֹאן should grammatically be translated as “and take for yourself the flock.” However, as the Pesahh is “one” from the flock, the prefix “from” may be missing from the word “flocks.”

345. The word “upon” may also be translated as “over.”

346. Or “unto.”

347. “Bending oneself down” means to prostrate oneself down to the ground in respect to another.

348. The “house of the cistern” is probably a prison.

349. The word “Night” is missing the prefix “in.”

350. “Place the beauty” means to “make accepted.”

351. “Heavy” means abundant.

352. The Septuagint and the Samaritan Pentateuch state that Israel was in Mits'rayim (Egypt) “and Canaan” for 430 years.

353. “Bone of this day” is an idiom of uncertain meaning, but may mean “this very same day” or the “middle of this day.”

354. “Bone of this day” is an idiom of uncertain meaning, but may mean “this very same day” or the “middle of this day.”

355. “Bursting of all the bowels” is an idiom for “births.”

356. This Hebrew word can also mean “milk.”

357. The Hebrew word דבש means a “sticky mass” and can also mean “dates” from the palm tree.

358. “From days unto days” is a Hebrew idiom meaning “continually.”

359. “Bursting of the bowels” is an idiom meaning “births.”

360. This Hebrew verb can also mean “break the neck.”

361. “Tomorrow” can mean “later,” a time in the future.

362. “Bursting of the bowels” is an idiom meaning “births.”

363. “Sea of reeds,” or “Yam Suph,” is usually mistranslated as “red sea.”

364. Meaning “harnessed.”

365. “The hand raising” is an idiom meaning “boldly.”

366. The phrase “UNAWARE WITHOUT” means “lack of.”

367. The phrase “GIVEN.THAT WHICH” means “even though.”

368. Leningrad Codex: תספו

369. Leningrad Codex: תחרשון

370. This phrase may also be translated as “What? Will you cry out to me?”

371. Or “go.”

372. “Being heavy” means that YHWH will bring his power on Mits'rayim to show his might.

373. “Being heavy” means that YHWH will bring his power on Mits'rayim to show his might.

374. This verb, שים, appears to be out of context and may be an error. A possible correction may be the verb עשה meaning “to make.”

375. Leningrad Codex: חומה

376. “With heaviness” probably means to “turn with difficulty,”

377. The word לְכֹל (to all) may be written incorrectly and may originally have been written as וְכֹל (and all).

378. The phrase “UNTIL UNIT” means “single one.”

379. Meaning “edge.”

380. A “great hand” is a “powerful action.”

381. “Sea of reeds,” or “Yam Suph,” is usually mistranslated as “red sea.”

382. “Be filled” probably means “outraged,” in the sense of being filled with anger.

383. Meaning “they dropped to the dark depths.”

384. Meaning “mighty men.”

385. “Sea of reeds,” or “Yam Suph,” is usually mistranslated as “red sea.”

386. Meaning “established” or “appointed.”

387. That is, a spring.

388. Qere = וַיִּלּוֹנוּ (and they were murmuring).

389. This Hebrew word can also mean “matter.”

390. “A word of the day in his day” is an idiom meaning a “daily matter.”

391. The phrase “day day” means “day by day” or “daily.”

392. The passage does not make sense contextually and appears to be written incorrectly. A possible solution is that the passage originally read, “and in the evening you will eat flesh” (compare with verse 8 and 12).

393. Qere = תַלִּינוּ.

394. The passage does not make sense contextually and appears to be written incorrectly. A possible solution is that the passage originally read, “and in the morning you will eat bread” (compare with verse 8 and 12).

395. The phrase “GIVEN.THAT UPON” means “because.”

396. As the word for “evening” is written in the double plural. This is literally translated as “between the 'two' evenings,” but is of uncertain meaning. It may be the time between sunset and dark or between sunrise (as the word ערב literally means the “mixing” of light) and sunset.

397. The phrase מָן הוּא (mahn hu) means, “Mahn is he” or “he is Mahn“ (where Mahn is the bread-like substance). However, if the text originally read, מָה הוּא (mah hu), then this would be translated as “What is he,” which explains the next phrase which states, “given that they did not know what he was,” where “what he was” is מָה הוּא in Hebrew.

398. “To the mouth of his eating” means that each person was to gather only what was needed for their meals.

399. “Skull” is a euphemism for a “person.”

400. “To the mouth of his eating” means that each person gathered what was needed for their meals.

401. Kermes, a species of worms, were found on the mahn (compare with verse 24).

402. “Like the mouth of his eating” means that each person gathered what was needed for their meals.

403. The phrase “UNTIL WHEREVER” means “how long.”

404. The verb is written in the perfect tense but contextually it appears that this verb should have been written in the imperfect tense.

405. Probably meaning “underneath his tent.”

406. This verse is a parenthetical statement.

407. This is the “people,” a masculine singular word in Hebrew.

408. The phrase “YET.AGAIN SMALL.AMOUNT” means “in a moment.”

409. The phrase “from this unit and from this unit” means “one on this side and one on the other side.”

410. The Hebrew verb may mean “come” or “go” and probably refers to the “going down” of the sun.

411. “Place it in the ears” is an idiom meaning to “speak.”

412. The phrase “a hand is upon the stool (or throne)” is of uncertain meaning.

413. “From a generation and a generation” is an idiom meaning “throughout the generations,” or “for all time.”

414. The phrase “UPON CONCERNING~s” means “on account of.”

415. Probably referring to the hard labor forced on the people.

416. Or, to judge.

417. The three uses of the Hebrew word Elohiym in this verse may refer to the judges.

418. The Hebrew word חֲמִשִּׁים, the plural form of חָמֵשׁ, means fifty. However, the context of the word חֲמִשִּׁים in this verse means fifties.

419. The “his” is “the people,” a masculine singular word in Hebrew.

420. The Hebrew word חֲמִשִּׁים, the plural form of חָמֵשׁ, means fifty. However, the context of the word חֲמִשִּׁים in this verse means fifties.

421. An unknown bird, but probably a hawk or eagle.

422. Leningrad Codex: השלשי

423. The passage as it is written is a contradiction. It appears the word לֹא (not) is missing and should read “do not go up in the hill.”

424. “From all his face” means the entire surface.

425. Leningrad Codex: השפר

426. Meaning “sounding.”

427. “Cast down” probably means to “throw down” the boundary that was to be made (see 19:12).

428. “Cast down” probably means to “throw down” the boundary that was to be made (see 19:12).

429. What Mosheh said to the people appears to be missing.

430. The word “face” can mean “presence.”

431. The “sword” is probably a sharp instrument used for shaping stone.

432. The masculine plural suffix (ים) may be used for a group of males or males and females. In the context of this verse, the word “boys” refers to the children, the sons and daughter.

433. The word Elohiym may refer to the judges.

434. Qere = לוֹ (to him).

435. If לֹא (lo), the ketiv meaning “not,” is correct, this would be translated as “which he did not appoint.” If לוֹ (lo), the qere meaning “to him,” is correct, then it would be translated as “who appointed her to himself.”

436. That is to “rule” or “decide.”

437. Or “manner.”

438. The word Elohiym may refer to the judges.

439. Possibly meaning a premeditated action.

440. Meaning “in his possession.”

441. The phrase “only his ceasing he will give him” is probably an idiom for compensating the injured person for his time lost.

442. The injured is physically as well as financially healed.

443. The masculine plural suffix (ים) may be used for a group of males or males and females. In the context of this verse, the word “boys” refers to the children, the sons and daughters.

444. The phrase “YESTERDAY THREE.DAYS.AGO” is an idiom meaning “previously.”

445. The phrase “YESTERDAY THREE.DAYS.AGO” is an idiom meaning “previously.”

446. This verse is the first verse of chapter22 in Christian Bibles. In all of chapter 22, the verse numbers in Christian Bibles will be one number higher.

447. Qere = בְּעִירוֹ (his cattle). The ketiv בְּעִירֹה (her cattle) is grammatically incorrect.

448. The word “burn” is probably meaning “grazing” and not a “burning” of fire. The “he” is referring to the “cattle,” a masculine singular noun in Hebrew.

449. To “go out” in the sense of “spreading out,” not in the sense of being extinguished.

450. This Hebrew word means “to eat,” but also “to devour” or “destroy.”

451. The word Elohiym may refer to the judges. The text appears to be missing text at this point and may have originally included “to see,” or “to determine.”

452. The word Elohiym may refer to the judges. However, unlike the other uses of this Hebrew word in this section, the verb associated with Elohiym is singular (he).

453. “His master” is the owner of the beast.

454. Meaning “accept.”

455. “His master” is the owner of the beast.

456. Or “borrow.”

457. “My nose will flare up” is an idiom meaning “I will be fiercely angry.”

458. This Hebrew word can also mean a “lender.”

459. The Hebrew verb may mean “come” or “go” and contextually must be referring to the “going down” of the sun.

460. Qere = כְסוּתוֹ (his raiment). The ketiv כְסוּתֹה (her raiment) is grammatically incorrect.

461. Context suggests this may be the judges.

462. That is, a “crowd,” as a great multitude, the majority.

463. “Stretching out under his load” means “lying down from the heavy load.”

464. The second part of this passage is ambiguous. One possible interpretation is, “you will not leave the donkey to struggle with its load, but will help it with its load.” Another interpretation is, “you will not release the load from the donkey and leave it behind, but will help it up to carry its load.”

465. The “remainder” is what the needy ones leave behind.

466. “Breathe deeply” means “to take a break” or “to refresh ones' self.”

467. The word פָנַי (my face) appears to be missing the prefix “to.” As it is written, the sentence could be translated as “and my face will not appear empty.”

468. “In the going out of the year” means “at the end of the year.”

469. The word “HOUSE” appears to be missing the prefix “to” or the suffix “unto.”

470. “The summit of the first-fruits” may mean the “first” or the “best” of the harvest.

471. Or “milk.”

472. Meaning to “remove” or “forgive.”

473. Leningrad Codex: שמוע

474. In context, probably meaning to remove these people from the land.

475. “Give the neck of all your attackers to you” is an idiom meaning “all your enemies will be defeated.” In the Ancient Near East, the victorious king would place his foot on the neck of his enemy as a sign of victory over the defeated.

476. “From before your face” is an idiom meaning “from your presence.”

477. “The living ones of the field” is an idiom meaning “wild animals.”

478. The phrase “SMALL.AMOUNT SMALL.AMOUNT” means “little by little.”

479. “From your face” is an idiom meaning “from your presence.”

480. “Sea of reeds,” or “Yam Suph,” is usually mistranslated as “red sea.”

481. “From your face” is an idiom meaning “from your presence.”

482. Meaning “the base.”

483. Also meaning “tribes,” as each tribe was represented by a staff or standard.

484. Or “read.”

485. This Hebrew word may also mean a “poplar tree” or the “moon.”

486. The meaning of the phrase “like a bone of the skies for cleanliness” is uncertain.

487. The phrase “master of words” apparently means “one with a dispute.”

488. The phrase “like a fire eating in the head of the hill” means “like a fire devouring everything on top of the hill.”

489. In this context, to “pour down” means to “cast” an object from a molten metal.

490. Or “feet.”

491. Leningrad Codex: ארון

492. Or “housings.”

493. The Hebrew word for the “palms” can also mean “palm” shaped and here refers to “spoons” or “shovels.”

494. Leningrad Codex: תיעשה

495. “From her” means that each of these parts is beaten (molded) out of the one piece.

496. “From her sides” means that each of these parts is beaten (molded) out of the one piece.

497. “From her” means that each of these parts is beaten (molded) out of the one piece.

498. “From her” means that each of these parts is beaten (molded) out of the one piece.

499. “Make her lamps go up” means to light the wicks.

500. This may be a work of thinking, in the sense of an intricate design, a work of a thinker, in the sense of a designer.

501. The curtains were made of “goats” hair.

502. These “hands” are probably notched tenons which are cut into the board to join the boards together.

503. These “hands” are probably notched tenons which are cut into the board to join the boards together.

504. That is, “sides.”

505. Meaning “west.”

506. Leningrad Codex: תאמם

507. Meaning “seaward” or “westward.”

508. Or “housings.”

509. Meaning “according to the manner.”

510. This may be a work of thinking, in the sense of an intricate design, a work of a thinker, in the sense of a designer.

511. The phrase “special of specials” means a “very special thing, one or place.”

512. The phrase “special of specials” means a “very special thing, one or place.”

513. This may refer to a work of embroidery or the work of an embroiderer.

514. In this context, to “pour down” means to “cast” an object from a molten metal.

515. The phrase “UNTIL HALF” means “in the middle.”

516. Qere = וְעַמּוּדָיו.

517. Meaning “west.”

518. This Hebrew word may refer to embroidery or an embroiderer.

519. The word בַּחֲמִשִּׁים (in fifty) is probably a scribal error and may originally have been written as בָּאַמָּה (by the ammahs).

520. The word “go up” is referring to the rising flame of the lamp.

521. The wind, or breath, of an individual is his character.

522. This may be a work of thinking, in the sense of an intricate design, a work of a thinker, in the sense of a designer.

523. “Six titles being left behind” means “the other six titles.”

524. Or “according to their birthings.”

525. This may be a work of thinking, in the sense of an intricate design, a work of a thinker, in the sense of a designer.

526. Or “tribes.”

527. Leningrad Codex: האפוד

528. Qere = מִטַּבְּעֹתָיו.

529. Leningrad Codex: האפוד

530. That is an “opening.”

531. That is an “edge” or a “border.”

532. This may be the work of braiding or the work of a braider.

533. The phrase “bells of gold and pomegranates” is written twice showing that they are to be placed on the garment in series.

534. Meaning the “sound” of the bells.

535. The phrase “for the self-will for them” means “that they will be accepted.”

536. This may refer to a work of embroidery or the work of an embroiderer.

537. To “fill the hand” is an idiom of uncertain meaning, but the same phrase is used in Akkadian to mean the placing of a relevant tool or insignia (such as a scepter for a king) in the hand of one being installed in a high office.

538. That is a “crown.”

539. To “fill the hand” is an idiom of uncertain meaning, but the same phrase is used in Akkadian to mean the placing of a relevant tool or insignia (such as a scepter for a king) in the hand of one being installed in a high office.

540. “The heavy one” is the “liver,” the heaviest organ of the body.

541. The phrase “and you will burn incense” may also be interpreted as “and you will burn them as incense.”

542. “To his pieces” means that the animal would be divided (cut) at each section (piece, joint).

543. Leningrad Codex: עליהן

544. “The heavy lobe” is the liver, the heaviest organ in the body.

545. To “fill the hand” is an idiom of uncertain meaning, but the same phrase is used in Akkadian to mean the placing of a relevant tool or insignia (such as a scepter for a king) in the hand of one being installed in a high office.

546. To “fill the hand” is an idiom of uncertain meaning, but the same phrase is used in Akkadian to mean the placing of a relevant tool or insignia (such as a scepter for a king) in the hand of one being installed in a high office.

547. To “fill the hand” is an idiom of uncertain meaning, but the same phrase is used in Akkadian to mean the placing of a relevant tool or insignia (such as a scepter for a king) in the hand of one being installed in a high office.

548. The phrase “special of specials” means a “very special thing, one or place.”

549. “Son” is an idiom for years “old.”

550. The phrase “between the evenings” is of uncertain meaning but may be the time between sunset and dark.

551. Leningrad Codex: רביעת

552. The phrase “between the evenings” is of uncertain meaning but may be the time between sunset and dark.

553. Or “housings.”

554. The repeat of this phrase means “morning by morning.”

555. “Making the lamps do well” is probably referring to trimming the wicks so that they burn properly.

556. The phrase “between the evenings” is of uncertain meaning but may be the time between sunset and dark.

557. The phrase “INCENSE.SMOKE BE.STRANGE” can be translated as “incense of a stranger” or as “strange incense.”

558. The phrase “special of specials” means a “very special thing, one or place.”

559. “Lift up the head” means to “count.”

560. That is a pestilence, plague or other disaster.

561. “Son” is an idiom for years “old.”

562. Meaning “chief” or “principle.”

563. This may be a “work of compounding,” in the sense of a “mixture,” or made by a “compounder” in the sense of a “mixer.”

564. The phrase “special of specials” means a “very special thing, one or place.”

565. The “sum” is the proportions mentioned in the previous verses.

566. “Strand in strand” means an equal portion of each.

567. This may be a “work of compounding,” in the sense of a “mixture,” or made by a “compounder” in the sense of a “mixer.”

568. The phrase “special of specials” means a “very special thing, one or place.”

569. The “sum” is the proportions mentioned in the previous verses.

570. Probably meaning “to smell the same as her,” where the “her” is the incense smoke, a feminine noun.

571. The phrase “I called out by title Betsaleyl” can mean, “I called Betsaleyl by name,” but can also be translated as “I met with the title (meaning character or person) of Betsaleyl,” as the Hebrew verb קרא may mean to “call out” or to “meet.”

572. The wind, or breath, of an individual is his character.

573. When the Hebrew word עֵץ is written in the singular, as it is here, it can mean tree or trees. When it is written in the plural form, it usually means “wood.” If the original text read עֵצִים, the plural form, then this would be translated as “wood.”

574. It appears the word יֵעָשֶׂה is written incorrectly. The verb יֵעָשֶׂה identifies the subject of the verb as a masculine singular (he). However, the word “business,” the subject of the verb, is a feminine singular word.

575. “Breathe deeply” means “to take a break” or “to refresh ones' self.”

576. When the word “Elohiym,” a plural word, is used as the subject of a verb, the verb normally identifies the subject as a masculine singular. Therefore, the word “Elohiym” is being used in a singular sense. However, in this verse, the verb “walk” identifies the subject of the verb, “Elohiym,” as a masculine plural noun. This may simply be an alternate grammatical verb and noun construct, or the word Elohiym is meant to be understood as a plural in this verse. (Compare with Exodus 32:4, 32:5 and 32:8.)

577. The word “Elohiym” is being used as a masculine plural noun in this verse, as it is modified with the masculine plural pronoun “these.” However, the image representing the “Elohiym” is a single bullock. (Compare with Exodus 32:1, 32:5 and 32:8.)

578. In this verse the “Elohiym” is being identified with a masculine singular pronoun. (Compare with Exodus 32:1, 32:4 and 32:8.)

579. The pronoun “him,” identifies the word “Elohiym” as a masculine singular noun. In addition, the image representing the “Elohiym” is a single bullock. (Compare with Exodus 32:1, 32:4 and 32:5 and the following Footnote.)

580. The word “Elohiym” is identified as a masculine plural noun, as it is modified with the masculine plural pronoun “these.” (Compare with the previous Footnote and Exodus 32:1, 32:4 and 32:5.)

581. The context implies that the word “finish” means to “destroy.”

582. The root of the Hebrew word ויחל may be חול (to twist), חלל (to pierce) or חלה (to be sick).

583. The phrase “to finish them from upon the face of the ground” means “to remove them from the land.”

584. The text appears to be missing a word after "answer," possibly "rejoicing," but the Septuagint has "wine."

585. Qere = מִיָּדָיו.

586. The “flaring of the nose” is an idiom for a fierce anger.

587. “Under the hill” meaning “at the bottom of the hill.”

588. The “flaring of the nose” is an idiom for a fierce anger.

589. See Exodus 32:1

590. Probably meaning “enemies,” ones who “rise up” against them.

591. “Place his sword upon his midsection” means to “strap a sword onto the waist.”

592. To “fill the hand” is an idiom of uncertain meaning, but the same phrase is used in Akkadian to mean the placing of a relevant tool or insignia (such as a scepter for a king) in the hand of one being installed in a high office.

593. Leningrad Codex: עלהם

594. This Hebrew word can also mean “milk.”

595. The Hebrew word דבש means a “sticky mass” and can also mean “dates” from the palm tree.

596. The context implies that the word “finish” means to “destroy.”

597. “Set down” in this context means to “put on.”

598. The context implies that the word “finish” means to “destroy.”

599. “Make your trappings go down from upon you” in this context means to “take off your trappings.

600. The context implies that the word “delivered” means “removed.”

601. That is to “stretch out” or to “set up.”

602. “I know you by title” is an idiom meaning “I know your character,” or “I know all about you.”

603. “Find beauty” means to “be accepted.”

604. “Find beauty” means to “be accepted.”

605. “Know your road” is an idiom meaning “teach me your ways.”

606. “My face will walk” means “my presence will go.”

607. “Make a rest for you” may be translated as “give you rest.”

608. “Find beauty” means to “be accepted.”

609. “Find beauty” means to “be accepted.”

610. “I know you by title” is an idiom meaning “I know your character,” or “I know all about you.”

611. The phrase “I will call out YHWH by title” can mean, “I will call YHWH by name,” but can also be translated as “and I will meet with the title (meaning character or person) of YHWH,” as the Hebrew verb קרא may mean to “call out” or to “meet.”

612. This may be the palm of a hand, a palm tree or anything that is palm-shaped.

613. This may be the palm of a hand, a palm tree or anything that is palm-shaped.

614. The phrase “my backs” may also be translated as “behind me.”

615. The phrase “he called out YHWH by title” can mean, “he called YHWH by name,” but can also be translated as “and he met with the title (meaning character or person) of YHWH,” as the Hebrew verb קרא may mean to “call out” or to “meet.”

616. The phrase וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה יְהוָה אֵל may be translated as, “and he called out, YHWH, YHWH, the mighty one,” “and YHWH called out, YHWH is a mighty one” or “and YHWH called out YHWH the mighty one.”

617. “Slow of nostrils” is an idiom meaning “patient.”

618. “Lifting up” means “forgiving.”

619. The Septuagint reads “he will not acquit the guilty,” where the word “guilty” is not found in the Hebrew text, but may have accidentally been dropped from the text.

620. “Find beauty” means to “be accepted.”

621. “Not been shaped” means that it has not been done before.

622. “From your face” is an idiom meaning “from your presence.”

623. The “bursting of the bowels” is the childbirths.

624. The Hebrew word תִּזָּכָר means “you will be remembered,” but the context implies that this word may have originally been written as הַזָּכָר meaning “the male.”

625. This Hebrew verb can mean to “behead” or “break the neck.”

626. The word פָנַי appears to be missing the prefix ל (to). As it is written, the sentence could be translated as “and my face will not appear empty.”

627. Meaning “end.”

628. Leningrad Codex: גבלך

629. “The summit of the first-fruits” may mean the “first” or the “best” of the first-fruits.

630. Or “milk.

631. The phrase “GIVEN.THAT UPON” means “because.”

632. This Hebrew word can also mean “matters.”

633. The Hebrew phrase קָרַן עוֹר פָּנָיו literally means “the skin of his face had horns,” but many interpret this figuratively to mean that “rays of light” came from his face, an amazing sight in either case.

634. The Hebrew phrase קָרַן עוֹר פָּנָיו literally means “the skin of his face had horns,” but many interpret this figuratively to mean that “rays of light” came from his face, an amazing sight in either case.

635. The Hebrew phrase קָרַן עוֹר פְּנֵי מֹשֶׁה literally means “the skin of the face of Mosheh had horns,” but many interpret this figuratively to mean that “rays of light” came from his face, an amazing sight in either case.

636. Context implies that the pronoun “them” is in error and should be “you.”

637. Specifically, the hair of the goats.

638. The wind, or breath, of an individual is his character.

639. Specifically, the hair of the goats.

640. Specifically, the hair of the goats.

641. That is the “settings.”

642. The phrase “YHWH called out by title Betsaleyl” can mean, “I called Betsaleyl by name,” but can also be translated as “I met with the title (meaning character or person) of Betsaleyl,” as the Hebrew verb קרא may mean to “call out” or to “meet.”

643. The wind, or breath, of an individual is his character.

644. When the Hebrew word עֵץ is written in the singular, as it is here, it always means tree or trees. When it is written in the plural form, it usually means “wood.” If the original text read עֵצִים, the plural form, then this would be translated as “wood.”

645. This may be a work of thinking, in the sense of an intricate design, a work of a thinker, in the sense of a designer.

646. This may refer to a work of embroidery or the work of an embroiderer.

647. This may be a work of thinking, in the sense of an intricate design, a work of a thinker, in the sense of a designer.

648. Leningrad Codex: היריעת

649. Specifically, the hair of the goats.

650. Leningrad Codex: אילם

651. The contextual meaning of this Hebrew word is uncertain. It may mean “standing acacia wood” or “acacia wood standing up.”

652. These “hands” are probably notched tenons which are cut into the board to join the boards together.

653. These “hands” are probably notched tenons which are cut into the board to join the boards together.

654. Meaning “west.”

655. The Hebrew text appears to be missing the phrase “under the one board, and” after this word (compare with Exodus 36:26).

656. Meaning “west.”

657. “Flee away” probably means “pass through.”

658. Or “housings.”

659. This may be a work of thinking, in the sense of an intricate design, a work of a thinker, in the sense of a designer.

660. In this context, to “pour down” means to “cast” an object from a molten metal.

661. This may refer to a work of embroidery or the work of an embroiderer.

662. Leningrad Codex: טבעת

663. In this context, to “pour down” means to “cast” an object from a molten metal.

664. Or “feet.”

665. Qere = קְצוֹתָיו.

666. In this context, to “pour down” means to “cast” an object from a molten metal.

667. Or “housings.”

668. The Hebrew word for the “palms” can also mean “palm” shaped and here refers to “spoons” or “shovels.”

669. The phrase “and he made them with” appears to be missing before “clean gold” (compare with Exodus 25:29).

670. “Out of her” means that each of these parts is beaten (molded) out of the one piece.

671. Or “housings.”

672. This may be a “work of compounding,” in the sense of a “mixture,” or made by a “compounder” in the sense of a “mixer.”

673. In this context, to “pour down” means to “cast” an object from a molten metal.

674. Or “housings.”

675. Leningrad Codex: העמודים

676. Meaning “west.”

677. This may refer to a work of embroidery or the work of an embroiderer.

678. Meaning “individual.”

679. “Son” is an idiom for years “old.”

680. In this context, to “pour down” means to “cast” an object from a molten metal.

681. The text appears to be missing the word “sheqels” after this Hebrew word.

682. That is the “top.”

683. This may be a work of thinking, in the sense of an intricate design, a work of a thinker, in the sense of a designer.

684. Qere = קְצוֹתָיו.

685. This may be a work of thinking, in the sense of an intricate design, a work of a thinker, in the sense of a designer.

686. Leningrad Codex: משבצת

687. Or “tribes.”

688. This may be the work of braiding or the work of a braider.

689. Or “opening.”

690. Or “edge.”

691. The word “linen” appears to be missing after this Hebrew word.

692. The phrase “bells and pomegranate” is written twice showing that they are to be placed on the garment in series.

693. This may be the work of braiding or the work of a braider.

694. This may refer to a work of embroidery or the work of an embroiderer.

695. That is a “crown.”

696. Qere = בְּרִיחָיו.

697. Leningrad Codex: ארון

698. “The lamp of rank” means “the row of lamps.”

699. The phrase בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ always means “the first day of the new moon” (compare with Exodus 40:17). Therefore, it appears that the phrase בְּיוֹם הַחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן is written incorrectly and should be written as בְּחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן (in the first new moon).

700. The phrase “special of specials” means a “very special thing, one or place.”

701. Probably meaning “inside.”

702. “Made the lamps go up” means to light the wicks.

703. The Hebrew name for the third book of the Torah is vaiyiqra (and he called), the first word in the book.

704. If the “to” is referring to YHWH, then this should be translated as “to him,” but if the “to” is referring to the one bringing the sacrifice it should be translated as “for him.”

705. The turtledove and dove are feminine words in Hebrew, therefore the pronoun “him” appears to be in error and should be “her” (compare with the next word-her plumage).

706. The phrase “special of specials” means a “very special thing, one or place.”

707. The phrase “special of specials” means a “very special thing, one or place.”

708. The “summit” may be the “best” or the “first” of the produce.

709. In the sense of not being burned on the fire.

710. “The heavy one” is the “liver,” the heaviest organ of the body.

711. “The heavy one” is the “liver,” the heaviest organ of the body.

712. Meaning the “liver,” the heaviest organ in the body.

713. The “liver,” which is the heaviest organ in the body.

714. The “they,” identified as feminine plural, is referring to the directives, a feminine plural noun (compare with verse 22).

715. This Hebrew word may also mean “matter.”

716. The gender of the subject changes from feminine to masculine.

717. This Hebrew word can also mean a “thing.”

718. A euphemism for a “creature.”

719. To touch in the sense of being able to afford.

720. Leningrad Codex: הוא

721. To overtake in the sense of acquiring.

722. Meaning “with his principle.”

723. The phrase “special of specials” means a “very special thing, one or place.”

724. The phrase “special of specials” means a “very special thing, one or place.”

725. The phrase “special of specials” means a “very special thing, one or place.”

726. The phrase “special of specials” means a “very special thing, one or place.”

727. The phrase “lobe upon the heavy one” may be written incorrectly and should read “upon the heavy lobe” (see Exodus 29:22 and Leviticus 8:16)

728. The phrase “special of specials” means a “very special thing, one or place.”

729. That is a “crown.”

730. “The heavy lobe” is the liver, the heaviest organ in the body.

731. “The heavy lobe” is the liver, the heaviest organ in the body.

732. To “fill the hand” is an idiom of uncertain meaning, but the same phrase is used in Akkadian to mean the placing of a relevant tool or insignia (such as a scepter for a king) in the hand of one being installed in a high office.

733. The phrase “GIVEN.THAT SO” means “since.”

734. “Son of a year” is an idiom for “one year old.”

735. “The heavy lobe” is the liver, the heaviest organ in the body.

736. An idiom meaning “apart from.”

737. “The heavy lobe” is the liver, the heaviest organ in the body.

738. Qere = יָדָיו.

739. Leningrad Codex: ויקריבו

740. The phrase “special of specials” means a “very special thing, one or place.”

741. Leningrad Codex: קדוש

742. The phrase “GIVEN.THAT SO” means “since.”

743. The phrase “special of specials” means a “very special thing, one or place.”

744. As the “they” is the feminine plural pronoun, it is referring to the “failure” and the “ascension offering,” not the sons of Aharon.

745. Leningrad Codex: וממפרסי

746. The meaning of “daughter of the owl” is uncertain; most translations ignore the word “daughter.”

747. Because all English translations identify this list of creatures as “birds” (see verse 13), the addition of the “bat” has often been used to show ignorance of the author of the text. However, as the Hebrew word “oph” simply means “a creature that flies,” the addition of the bat is justifiable.

748. The word “walking” also means “going,” and may apply to flyers as they “go” on two feet and with two wings.

749. Qere = לוֹ (to him).

750. That is, a fountain.

751. The phrase “making an increase of feet” means “have many feet.”

752. Leningrad Codex: הוא

753. Probably meaning “tender” or “raw.”

754. Probably meaning “swelling.”

755. The phrase “to all the appearance of the eyes of the administrator” means “as far as the administrator can see.”

756. Probably meaning “tender” or “raw.”

757. This Hebrew word may have been written twice by error or it is doubled for emphasis.

758. That is, “uncovered” or “bare.”

759. That is the “woof.”

760. “Business of skin” is a person working with leather.

761. The phrase “did not overturn his eye” means “did not change color.”

762. The Hebrew word TOUCH (plague) is a masculine noun. In verse 56 the masculine pronoun “him” is used for this word, but here, this verb uses the feminine pronoun “she” and appears to be in error.

763. A “utensil of clay” is a clay vessel.

764. Meaning “running.”

765. Leningrad Codex: תמימם

766. The phrase “special of specials” means a “very special thing, one or place.”

767. Meaning to “acquire possessions.”

768. Meaning “acquire.”

769. Meaning to “acquire” what is needed.

770. This verb is written in the perfect tense, “and he went out,” but the context implies that this should be written in the imperfect tense, “and he will go out.”

771. This pronoun is referring to “infection,” the only feminine word in this verse.

772. This pronoun is referring to the word “house.”

773. An alternate translation may be; “to teach when it is dirty and when it is clean, this is the teaching of the infection.”

774. This Hebrew word appears to be missing a preposition like “with.”

775. An alternate translation may be “and if the one with the issuing spits on a clean person.”

776. The “lying down of seed” is the emission of seed during copulation.

777. Leningrad Codex: גרלות

778. Most translations have “scapegoat,” but the context implies that this is the name of a person or other entity.

779. Meaning the one that was “selected.”

780. That is, “offer him.”

781. Meaning the one that was “selected.”

782. Qere = יָדָיו.

783. That is the “tenth day of the new moon.”

784. To “fill the hand” is an idiom of uncertain meaning, but the same phrase is used in Akkadian to mean the placing of a relevant tool or insignia (such as a scepter for a king) in the hand of one being installed in a high office.

785. That is to “sacrifice.”

786. Referring to the “soul,” a feminine noun.

787. That is the “dust” of the ground where the blood is poured.

788. An alternate translation of this verse may be, “and you will not take a woman in addition to her sister to be her rival, to remove the cover of her nakedness, while her sister is still living,”

789. A preposition like “on” or “in” appears to be missing before the “lying places of a woman.”

790. Meaning to be “on all fours” for procreation.

791. Leningrad Codex: התועבת

792. Leningrad Codex: האלילם

793. That is the “reaping.”

794. That is to “steal.”

795. That is to “keep for the night.”

796. That is the wages “made” by the hireling.

797. The Hebrew word meaning “keep” is defined as “to hold onto to preserve, protect or hold in reserve,” but is problematic as it does not fit with the context. Many translations resolve this by adding the word “grudge,” “keep a grudge,” and it would appear that this Hebrew word, or a similar word, is missing from the text. The Greek Septuagint reads, “and you will not be angry,” and may preserve a more correct Hebrew version.

798. Meaning to be “on all fours” for procreation.

799. To “go up upon you” means to “wear.”

800. Measured stones were used in the balances for weights.

801. Leningrad Codex: לזנת

802. It appears that the phrase MAN WHICH he~will~COMMIT.ADULTERY AT WOMAN, is written twice by accident.

803. The word “COMMIT.ADULTERY” is written twice, but one is referring to the “man” and the other is referring to the “woman.”

804. Meaning to be “on all fours” for procreation.

805. The context implies that the word KINDNESS (חסד / hhesed) is incorrect and may be a misspelling for another word, such as DIMINISH (חסר / hhaser), which is spelled almost the same.

806. Leningrad Codex: והוא

807. Qere = יִקְרְחוּ.

808. To “fill the hand” is an idiom of uncertain meaning, but the same phrase is used in Akkadian to mean the placing of a relevant tool or insignia (such as a scepter for a king) in the hand of one being installed in a high office.

809. Of uncertain meaning.

810. Referring to the “soul,” a feminine noun.

811. This Hebrew word can also imply the “going down” of the sun.

812. The prefix meaning “and” can also mean “or.”

813. The word “day” may be missing from the text (compare with Lev 23:6).

814. As the word for “evening” is written in the double plural. This is literally translated as “between the 'two' evenings,” but is of uncertain meaning. It may be the time between sunset and dark or between sunrise (as the word ערב literally means the “mixing” of light) and sunset.

815. The “her” is probably referring to the “deposit,” a feminine word.

816. “Bone of this day” is an idiom of uncertain meaning, but may mean “this very same day” or the “middle of this day.”

817. Leningrad Codex: הבכרים

818. “Bone of this day” is an idiom of uncertain meaning, but may mean “this very same day” or the “middle of this day.”

819. “Bone of this day” is an idiom of uncertain meaning, but may mean “this very same day” or the “middle of this day.”

820. “Bone of this day” is an idiom of uncertain meaning, but may mean “this very same day” or the “middle of this day.”

821. The phrase “from the evening until evenings” is of uncertain meaning, but may be the time between sunset and dark.

822. An idiom meaning “apart from.”

823. Leningrad Codex: נדבתיכם

824. Meaning the “lamps.”

825. Meaning to “burn.”

826. The phrase “in the ceasing day” is duplicated, either by accident or for the purpose of identifying “every ceasing day.”

827. The phrase “special of specials” means a “very special thing, one or place.”

828. A euphemism for the wild animals.

829. Meaning “according to.”

830. Qere = לוֹ (to him).

831. The Hebrew verb תעבד is written in the qal form, but may be in error and should have been written in the hiphil form. In which case this phrase would be translated as “you will not make him serve in the service of a servant.”

832. A euphemism for wild beasts.

833. The “living ones of the field” is a euphemism for “wild animals.”

834. The “she” is referring to the word “living,” a singular feminine noun.

835. Leningrad Codex: להיות

836. The phrase “by the mouth” means “according to.”

837. Meaning “according to.”

838. The phrase “by the mouth” means “according to.”

839. The phrase “special of specials” means a “very special thing, one or place.”

840. Livestock was counted when they passed under the staff of the shepherd as they entered the gate.

841. The Hebrew name for the fourth book of the Torah is b’midbar (in the wilderness) and is from this word.

842. Qere = קְרוּאֵי.

843. The word “army” appears to be missing the prefix meaning “to.”

844. Meaning his place, position or station.

845. Leningrad Codex: הבכר

846. To “fill the hand” is an idiom of uncertain meaning, but the same phrase is used in Akkadian to mean the placing of a relevant tool or insignia (such as a scepter for a king) in the hand of one being installed in a high office.

847. This Hebrew word may be written twice for emphasis, or it may be an accidental duplication by the scribe.

848. Leningrad Codex: בכור

849. Leningrad Codex: שמת

850. “Lift up the head” is an idiom for “counting heads.”

851. The phrase “special of specials” means a “very special thing, one or place.”

852. That is the “tribe.”

853. The phrase “special of specials” means a “very special thing, one or place.”

854. Probably means “even for a moment.”

855. “Lift up the head” is an idiom for “counting heads.”

856. It is possible that the Hebrew word for “service” was accidentally written twice by the scribe, or one of these words should have been the word ARMY (see verses 30, 35, 39 and 43)

857. The meaning of the phrase “to the soul” is uncertain.

858. An idiom meaning “apart from.”

859. This may refer to the loosening of the hair or the removing of a covering.

860. A “spitting upon” is a curse.

861. A “spitting upon” is a curse.

862. An idiom meaning “apart from.”

863. The construction of this passage implies that the captains brought near the “heads of the house of their fathers,” but as the “heads” are the captains, we can assume that the captains “brought near” an offering, which is what we find in the next verse.

864. That is, “one cart and one ox for each of the two captains.”

865. Leningrad Codex: העגלות

866. The phrase “one captain for the day” is repeated to imply a repetition.

867. Leningrad Codex: עתדים

868. Leningrad Codex: פדהצור

869. Meaning “to light the lamps.”

870. Meaning “to light the lamps.”

871. The phrase “bursting bowels” means “give birth.”

872. That is a “plague.”

873. Leningrad Codex: במעדו

874. As the word for “evening” is written in the double plural. This is literally translated as “between the 'two' evenings,” but is of uncertain meaning. It may be the time between sunset and dark or between sunrise (as the word ערב literally means the “mixing” of light) and sunset.

875. As the word for “evening” is written in the double plural. This is literally translated as “between the 'two' evenings,” but is of uncertain meaning. It may be the time between sunset and dark or between sunrise (as the word ערב literally means the “mixing” of light) and sunset.

876. This is referring to a person who becomes dirty due to being in contact with another person, probably a dead body.

877. Leningrad Codex: הקריב

878. Probably meaning a “dead body.”

879. As the word for “evening” is written in the double plural. This is literally translated as “between the 'two' evenings,” but is of uncertain meaning. It may be the time between sunset and dark or between sunrise (as the word ערב literally means the “mixing” of light) and sunset.

880. The “him” is “Pesahh.”

881. This Hebrew word appears to be missing a preposition such as “in.” As it is written, this should be translated as “fire of night.”

882. Leningrad Codex: העלות

883. That is one of the trumpets.

884. Leningrad Codex: בחצצרת

885. Leningrad Codex: חדשכם

886. Leningrad Codex: חלן

887. Leningrad Codex: פדהצור

888. Possibly meaning they are the “rearguard” of the camp.

889. The phrase “GIVEN.THAT UPON SO” means “since.”

890. The tense of this verb appears to be written incorrectly and should have been in the perfect tense.

891. This Hebrew word appears to be missing a preposition such as “before.”

892. The word “eye”may mean “appearance” in this context.

893. This Hebrew word appears to be missing a preposition such as “in.”

894. This pronoun is second person feminine, but as this is referring to YHWH, it should probably be second person masculine.

895. This pronoun suffix is second person feminine, but as this is referring to Mosheh, it should probably be second person masculine.

896. Leningrad Codex: עלהם

897. “Like the road of a day in this way all around the camp” means “a day's journey” in every direction from the camp.

898. That is, “like a depth of two ammahs.”

899. The prefix “to” appears to be missing from this Hebrew word.

900. Qere = עָנָיו.

901. Probably meaning “walls” as in “walled cities” in contrast to just camps.

902. This may be an error and should read “and~they~will~COME.”

903. Leningrad Codex: אשכול

904. Leningrad Codex: אתם

905. Leningrad Codex: יושב

906. Probably meaning on the “banks.”

907. Leningrad Codex: ויציאו

908. That is, a “leader.”

909. That is, “protection,” in the sense of being in the shade of a covering,

910. The phrase “UNTIL WHEREVER” means “how long.”

911. “Slow of nostrils” is an idiom meaning “patient.”

912. The Septuagint has the word “not” and if this is the original reading, the first phrase of this sentence would read, “they will not see the land.”

913. Probably meaning “follow.”

914. “Sea of reeds,” or “Yam Suph,” is usually mistranslated as “red sea.”

915. The phrase “WHICH THEY make~MURMUR~ing” may be an accidental duplication.

916. The context implies that this Hebrew word should be “NOT,” in which case, this phrase would read, “you, you will not come.”

917. The phrase “DAY to~the~YEAR” may have accidentally been duplicated.

918. Qere = וַיַּלִּינוּ (which is in the hiphil [causative], rather than the niphil [passive] form).

919. Meaning “violate” or “transgress.”

920. Meaning “words.”

921. What the “she” is referring to is uncertain as this would be referring to a feminine noun, which is not found in the text. However, the context implies it is the “crossing over the mouth of YHWH,” in which case one would expect the word “he,” rather than “she.” the Greek Septuagint reads “you will not prosper.” the Hebrew word תִצְלָח can mean “you will prosper,” and if this is the correct reading then the preceding word “and~SHE” would have to have originally been “and~YOU(mp).”

922. The phrase “GIVEN.THAT UPON SO” means “since” or “because.”

923. Probably the “threshing floor.”

924. The context implies that this Hebrew word should include the prefix “to,” but appears to be missing.

925. The context implies that the “he” is the “one teaching,” but as the word “teaching” is a feminine noun, either the gender of this verb is incorrect and should be she~will~EXIST (in which case this would be translated as “one teaching will exist for you”), or it is referring to another unidentified masculine noun.

926. This masculine pronoun is referring to the native and immigrant (masculine nouns). The feminine pronouns in this and the next verse are referring to the “soul” (feminine noun).

927. Leningrad Codex: תתורו

928. This phrase has been interpreted to mean, “You have gone too far” or “Enough of you.”

929. This Hebrew word appears to be missing a prefix such as “in.”

930. This phrase has been interpreted to mean, “You have gone too far” or “Enough of you.”

931. The nikkud indicate this pronoun is “feminine singular,” but the context is clearly “masculine singular.”

932. Qere = תַלִּינוּ.

933. “Shape a shape” probably means “to bring about something great.”

934. Referring to the fire, a feminine word in Hebrew.

935. That is a “fierce anger” in the sense of smashing a piece of wood resulting in flying splinters of wood.

936. An idiom meaning “apart from.”

937. This Hebrew word can also mean “matter.”

938. That is, “to bring forth buds.”

939. The phrase “UNIT BRANCH to~CAPTAIN,” meaning “one branch for a captain,” is either written twice by accident, or is written twice to mean “a branch for each captain.”

940. The phrase “special of specials” means a “very special thing, one or place.”

941. The phrase “special of specials” means a “very special thing, one or place.”

942. Meaning the “best.”

943. Meaning the “first.”

944. The context implies that this Hebrew word may have originally been prefixed with the lamed (meaning “for”) instead of the beyt (meaning “in”).

945. That is the “threshing floor.”

946. That is the “threshing floor.”

947. Leningrad Codex: יבא

948. The “bracelet of cord” is some type of covering or lid for the container.

949. This Hebrew word appears to be missing the preposition “to.”

950. This Hebrew word can also mean “times,” but as it is written with the double plural suffix it means “two times.”

951. Leningrad Codex: גבלך

952. The phrase “extend the right hand or left hand” means that they will not “go to the left or the right” of the road.

953. An alternate translation of this phrase may be, “I will cross over with nothing but my feet.”

954. An alternate translation is “and Yisra'eyl turned away from him.”

955. “Sea of reeds,” or “Yam Suph,” is usually mistranslated as “red sea.”

956. The structure of this sentence implies that the subject of this verb is the word SOUL, but the word SOUL is a feminine noun and this verb identifies the subject of the verb as masculine. This Hebrew word may be in error and should read “she~did~LOATHE.”

957. Leningrad Codex: מגבל

958. Hamlets of the larger cities were called “daughters” of the city.

959. Leningrad Codex: דיבן

960. Qere = וַיּוֹרֶשׁ.

961. Hamlets of the larger cities were called “daughters” of the city.

962. In the Septuagint this verse ends with the word “saying” and is probably missing from the Masoretic Hebrew text.

963. The phrase “ADD YET.AGAIN” means “continue” or “again.”

964. Heavy in the sense of being honored and respected.

965. This Hebrew word may mean “here.”

966. Leningrad Codex: היכל

967. That is, “offer up” as a sacrifice.

968. Qere = לְכָה (Walk!).

969. The suffix meaning “him,” appears to be incorrect according to the context.

970. Meaning the top of mount Pe'or.

971. Leningrad Codex: אילם

972. Probably meaning “on each altar.”

973. Meaning that he saw them dwelling in their camps according to their standards.

974. The possessive pronoun “him” seems to be written in error.

975. That is, “his enemies.”

976. The possessive pronoun “him” seems to be written in error.

977. While the Hebrew word is singular, context implies that it is plural.

978. Meaning the “beginning,” “first,” “best” or “most important.”

979. The Septuagint has “his seed will perish.”

980. The subject of this verb is identified as feminine, but as Ashur (masculine) is the subject, it would appear this is an error.

981. The possessive suffix is feminine identifying this as a woman from Mid'yan.

982. The possessive suffix is feminine identifying this as a woman from Mid'yan.

983. In both the Aleppo and Leningrad Codices, this verse follows verse 18 and 26:1 begins a new paragraph. However, context implies that this verse should be part of 26:1, just as it is in the Septuagint.

984. Qere = קְרִיאֵי.

985. This may also be translated as, “for a sign.”

986. Leningrad Codex: הישבי

987. The word “to~Ard” is accidentally omitted from the text, but is found in the Septuagint.

988. That is, “the many.”

989. That is, “the few.”

990. That is, “between the many and the few.”

991. The subject of the previous verb is masculine, but the word “inheritance,” which is the subject of that verb, is feminine.

992. This could also be translated as “hill of Ivrim” (hill of the Hebrews).

993. That is, a “shepherd.”

994. The phrase “between the evenings” is of uncertain meaning but may be the time between sunset and dark.

995. An idiom meaning “apart from.”

996. An idiom meaning “apart from.”

997. An idiom meaning “apart from.”

998. An idiom meaning “apart from.”

999. The meaning of “forbid her sign” is unknown. The Hebrew word אות (ot) means a “sign,” but all other translations treat this as the word את (et) and translated this phrase simply as “forbid her.”

1000. The context implies that this Hebrew word may be missing the prefix “in,” and would then be translated as “and if in the house of…”

1001. The context implies that this Hebrew word may be missing the prefix “in,” and would then be translated as “in the house of…”

1002. This can also mean “armed,” in the sense of drawing a weapon.

1003. This Hebrew word can also mean “matter.”

1004. This Hebrew noun is in the singular, but the context implies that it should be a plural.

1005. “Work of goats” means “made of goat skins” or possible “goat hair.”

1006. “Lifting up the head” means “to count.”

1007. Meaning “counted.”

1008. Referring to the “gold,” a masculine singular noun.

1009. Qere = תְנִיאוּן.

1010. The phrase “ADD YET.AGAIN” means “continue.”

1011. Leningrad Codex: נקים

1012. This Hebrew word may be in error and should have been written as ויאמרו meaning and they said (compare with Numbers 32:31).

1013. Meaning that they will take possession of a land.

1014. This Hebrew word appears to be missing a prefix meaning “to.”

1015. That is, “tribe.”

1016. Meaning that the title of these places has been “changed.”

1017. This Hebrew word could also be a noun meaning “towns of…”

1018. The villages outside of the city are called the “daughters” of the city.

1019. This Hebrew word may be in error and should be written as וישבו meaning “and they turned back.”

1020. That is a “spring.”

1021. “Sea of reeds,” or “Yam Suph,” is usually mistranslated as “red sea.”

1022. “Sea of reeds,” or “Yam Suph,” is usually mistranslated as “red sea.”

1023. Or, “the hills of the Ivrim” (the hills of the Hebrews). Also in verse 48.

1024. Leningrad Codex: במותם

1025. This Hebrew word can mean to “compare” and in this context means to “do the same to one as the other.”

1026. Qere = וְהָיוּ.

1027. The Hebrew phrase למעלה עקרבים can be translated as “to the ascent of Aqrabiym” or “to Ma'aleh Aqrabiym” (compare the Young's Literal Translation and the King James Version of this verse and Joshua 15:3).

1028. The subject of the verb is identified as plural, but is probably an error and should be in the singular (compare with verse 4).

1029. The phrase נחלה מצרים could also be translated as “unto the inheritance of Mits'rayim” as the word נחלה can mean “unto the wadi” or “inheritance” (compare with verse 2).

1030. This phrase can also be translated as “the western border” (also at the end of the verse), which is the (Mediterranean) Sea.

1031. The prefix meaning “the” may be in error and should probably be the prefix meaning “to.”

1032. Leningrad Codex: הגבל

1033. This Hebrew word may be written in error for another word that means “extends to” or “reaches.”

1034. That is to “appoint.”

1035. Leningrad Codex: ימתנו

1036. This verb means to push, throw or cast, but in this context appears to mean to “stab.”

1037. This verb means to push, throw or cast, but in this context appears to mean to “stab.”

1038. “Lost to die” means “condemned to death.”

1039. A “ransom.”

1040. That is a “branch” or “tribe.”

1041. The Hebrew name for the fifth book of the Torah is d’variym (words) and is derived from this word.

1042. Probably referring to ים סוף (Yam Suph), the sea of reeds, but is usually mistranslated as “the Red Sea.”

1043. Meaning, “you have settled long enough on this hill.”

1044. That is, “tribes.”

1045. Leningrad Codex: אותם

1046. That is, “tribes.”

1047. This Hebrew word means “fifty,” but in context this word may be translated as “fifties.”

1048. This Hebrew word means “twenty,” but in context this word may be translated as “tens.”

1049. While this Hebrew word means “if,” context requires that it be translated as “not.”

1050. Meaning that he was “angry.”

1051. “Sea of reeds,” or “Yam Suph,” is usually mistranslated as “red sea.”

1052. “Sea of reeds,” or “Yam Suph,” is usually mistranslated as “red sea.”

1053. Meaning “it is sufficient.”

1054. Leningrad Codex: מכפתר

1055. Qere = בָּנָיו.

1056. That is the “banks” of the wadi.

1057. Leningrad Codex: בצרת

1058. Leningrad Codex: והלבנן

1059. Leningrad Codex: הראות

1060. Not in the sense of “away,” but “toward.”

1061. This Hebrew word can also mean “things.”

1062. In context, this Hebrew word is plural and is referring to other Elohiym made of wood and stone.

1063. The phrase “in the narrows for you” may be interpreted as, “when you are in distress.”

1064. Or “things.”

1065. Meaning “from one end of the skies to the other.”

1066. That is the “east.”

1067. Leningrad Codex: מתמל

1068. The phrase “YESTERDAY THREE.DAYS.AGO” is an idiom meaning “previously.” Leningrad Codex: שלשם

1069. That is the “east.”

1070. The “edge” or “bank.”

1071. Qere = מִצְוֹתָי (my directives)

1072. “Staff” is a euphemism for a “tribe.”

1073. This verse could also be translated as “hear Yisra'eyl, YHWH is our Elohiym, YHWH is one,

1074. Leningrad Codex: מזזות

1075. The Septuagint assumes this Hebrew word is a noun and not a proper name and would then be translated as “with a trial” or “with temptation.”

1076. Leningrad Codex: ויציאנו

1077. Qere = מִצְוֹתָיו.

1078. While this verb is usually used in the context of repaying another that one has wronged, it can also be used in the context of repaying another that has caused wrong,

1079. Leningrad Codex: תחוס

1080. Meaning to “destroy,” in the same sense that fire “eats” the wood.

1081. The phrase “SMALL.AMOUNT SMALL.AMOUNT” means “little by little.”

1082. “Living ones of the field” are “wild beasts.”

1083. Leningrad Codex: הוליכך

1084. Qere = מִצְוֹתָיו.

1085. Leningrad Codex: הודיעך

1086. The phrase “GIVEN.THAT UPON” means “because.”

1087. That is, “fountains.”

1088. That is, “springs.”

1089. Leningrad Codex: טבים

1090. If the letter ה (the letter hey) prefixed to this Hebrew verb is the definite article (the) instead of an interrogative participle (?), an alternate translation would be, “the great and fearful wilderness” (see Deuteronomy 1:19).

1091. Leningrad Codex: לוחת

1092. Leningrad Codex: ויירשו

1093. The word טוֹב is a noun meaning “functional,” but if this was the verb טוּב, then this would be a verb meaning “do good.”

1094. If the previous word is a verb, then the alternate translation would be, “to do good for you.”

1095. While this phrase, “lords of the lords,” is correct, it should be noted that most Hebrew names (titles) for YHWH are in the plural, so this could be translated as “lord of the lords.”

1096. “Sea of reeds,” or “Yam Suph,” is usually mistranslated as “red sea.”

1097. Probably meaning “the farthest sea.”

1098. An alternate translation would be “no man will station himself in front of you.”

1099. This name can be the name of a place, the noun מורה (moreh), from the root ירה (Y.R.H) meaning “teacher,” or the participle form of the verb מרה (M.R.H) meaning “disobeying.”

1100. That is, “tribes.”

1101. Meaning “everything that your hands do.”

1102. A euphemism for a “place of rest or” in a “state of rest.”

1103. That is, “tribes.”

1104. That is, “doing.”

1105. Meaning to “forsake.”

1106. Leningrad Codex: גבלך

1107. An alternate translation is “but refrain from eating the blood.”

1108. This could also be translated as “be on your guard.”

1109. Or “in secret.”

1110. Meaning “hide.”

1111. Qere = הַהִיא (literally translates as “the~SHE,” but means “that”).

1112. Meaning the “edge.”

1113. The meaning of “daughter of the owl” is uncertain; most translations ignore the word “daughter.” the Septuagint has just στρουθὸν (strouthon) meaning “sparrow.”

1114. Meaning “the road is too long for you.”

1115. While this verb often means to “place,” here it means to “replace.”

1116. While this verb often means to “place,” here it means to “replace.”

1117. Or “forget.”

1118. Meaning “at the end.”

1119. This Hebrew word is in the masculine and means a “Hebrew.”

1120. This Hebrew word is in the feminine and means “Hebrewess.”

1121. Or “work.”

1122. Meaning “tribes.”

1123. Meaning to ignore or violate.

1124. That is a “copy.”

1125. Meaning “read.”

1126. A “tribe.”

1127. This may be the “best” or the “first.”

1128. Meaning “tribes.”

1129. Or “the dead.”

1130. Leningrad Codex: יבא

1131. That is, “three parts.”

1132. The phrase “YESTERDAY THREE.DAYS.AGO” is an idiom meaning “previously.”

1133. “Unaware discernment” means “unknowingly.”

1134. Meaning the ax head flew off the handle.

1135. “He will find” means that the iron of the ax head will “strike.”

1136. The phrase “YESTERDAY THREE.DAYS.AGO” is an idiom meaning “previously.”

1137. Leningrad Codex: איבך

1138. That is, the “edge.”

1139. Meaning to “siege.”

1140. Or “in the sieging.”

1141. Or “in the sieging.”

1142. That is, “siege works.”

1143. Qere = שָׁפְכוּ.

1144. That is, “finger-nails.”

1145. Leningrad Codex: הבכר

1146. A “mouth of two” is a double portion of the inheritance.

1147. Or “be lost.”

1148. This verb is missing the object of the verb - “them.”

1149. That is, “plow.”

1150. Leningrad Codex: והוצא

1151. Qere = הַנַּעֲרָה (the young woman).

1152. Qere = הַנַּעֲרָה (the young woman).

1153. Qere = הַנַּעֲרָה (the young woman).

1154. Qere = לַנַּעֲרָה (to the young woman).

1155. Qere = הַנַּעֲרָה (the young woman).

1156. Qere = נַעֲרָה (young woman).

1157. Qere = הַנַּעֲרָה (the young woman).

1158. This Hebrew word can also mean “matter.”

1159. Qere = הַנַּעֲרָה (the young woman).

1160. Qere = וְלַנַּעֲרָה (and to the young woman).

1161. Qere = לַנַּעֲרָה (to the young woman).

1162. Qere = הַנַּעֲרָה (the young woman).

1163. Qere = נַעֲרָה (young woman).

1164. Qere = הַנַּעֲרָה (the young woman).

1165. Leningrad Codex: דכה

1166. This Hebrew word can also mean “matter.”

1167. That is, “excrement.”

1168. This noun appears to be missing the prefix ב meaning “in.”

1169. This Hebrew word appears to be missing the prefix ל meaning “to.” Without it this would be translated as “disgusting of YHWH.”

1170. Leningrad Codex: כבוא

1171. Or “going.”

1172. Or “go.”

1173. Probably meaning “to pervert.”

1174. The meaning of this Hebrew verb in the context of the passage is not certain.

1175. Leningrad Codex: מאן

1176. This may also be translated as “a great stone and a small stone,” or “a heavy stone and a light stone.”

1177. This may also be translated as “a great eyphah and a small eyphah,” or “a heavy eyphah and a light eyphah.”

1178. The prefix ל, meaning “to,” appears to be missing from this Hebrew word. As it is written this phrase would be translated as “disgusting things of YHWH.”

1179. While this phrase literally reads, “You made YHWH say today,” the Septuagint reads, “You have chosen YHWH (theos - God) today.” This may preserve the original Hebrew wording for this phrase.

1180. Meaning “you will not hew them with an iron tool.”

1181. Leningrad Codex: ועשתרת

1182. Qere = וּבַטְּחֹרִים.

1183. Qere = יִשְׁכָּבֶנָּה.

1184. Leningrad Codex: מרחק

1185. Leningrad Codex: הגבהת

1186. Leningrad Codex: הכתבים

1187. Leningrad Codex: גדלת

1188. The phrase “ADD YET.AGAIN” means “continue.”

1189. An idiom meaning “apart from.”

1190. Meaning “tribe.”

1191. Meaning “tribe.”

1192. Qere = וּצְבוֹיִם.

1193. Or “things.”

1194. Leningrad Codex: לטבה

1195. Leningrad Codex: לבוא

1196. Leningrad Codex: העדתי

1197. That is, “read.”

1198. Or “tribes.”

1199. The subject of the verb is “you(fs),” but context implies that it should have been written as “she” as the subject of the verb is DYSFUNCTIONAL, a feminine noun.

1200. That is; until the end (of the words).

1201. This prefix is unique in that it is not attached to the noun that follows it. This may be an error on the part of a scribe and should be attached to the next word or the word that it was attached to was accidentally omitted by the scribe. Or the author chose to write this prefix in this manner for some unknown reason.

1202. Leningrad Codex: דר

1203. Leningrad Codex: ודר

1204. The Septuagint here has the word θεοῦ (theou) and the Dead Sea Scrolls have אל (el), both meaning “mighty one.”

1205. The “pupil” of the eye.

1206. Qere = בָּמֳתֵי.

1207. In context, this word means “to fear,” as you would fear a violent storm.

1208. The “she” is referring to the “fire,” a feminine noun.

1209. Leningrad Codex: בהמת

1210. Leningrad Codex: ידנו

1211. Or “their adversaries.”

1212. This Hebrew word is translated in various ways, including; whale, sea-monster, dragon, serpent, asp and jackal (see Exodus 7:9, Deuteronomy 32:33, Nehemiah 2:13, Job 7:12). According to these texts, this is a very large creature that lives on the land and in the water, which is characteristic of the crocodile.

1213. Leningrad Codex: חתום

1214. This phrase probably means “he will exist for you as a hiding-place.”

1215. That is, “adversaries.”

1216. Meaning “slain.”

1217. “Bone of this day” is an idiom of uncertain meaning, but may mean “this very same day” or the “middle of this day.”

1218. Qere = אֵשׁ דָּת.

1219. This could also be translated as, “and YHWH said from Sinai, he came up.”

1220. Or “tribes.”

1221. That is, “his adversaries.”

1222. Qere = בָּנָיו.

1223. That is, “teach” or “point out.”

1224. The Hebrew text appears to have written the word מן (min), meaning “from,” instead of the word לא (lo) meaning “not.”

1225. Leningrad Codex: כתפיו

1226. Leningrad Codex: ושפני

1227. A preposition, such as “with,” appears to be missing.

1228. Leningrad Codex: מנעלך

1229. “Distant” in time, as in “ancient.”

1230. This Hebrew word also means a “spring” or “fountain.”

1231. The feminine suffix appears to be in error and should be the masculine suffix according to the context.

1232. Leningrad Codex: האתת

Mr. Benner's Books

Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible      Ancient Hebrew Torah Lexicon      The Living Words      His Name is One
Mr. Benner's Courses

    

Join Mr. Benner on the Psalms Project!